Comparison of Freeze and Spray Drying to Obtain Primaquine-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Comparison of Freeze and Spray Drying to Obtain Primaquine-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

James Jorum Owuor (Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya & Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University Nairobi, Kenya), Florence Oloo (Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya & Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University Nairobi, Kenya), Japheth Kibet Ngetich (Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya), Mwaiwa Kivunzya (Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya), Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo (Maasai Mara University, Nairobi, Kenya) and Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa (Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University Nairobi, Kenya & Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/JNN.2017070103
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This article describes how the spray drying and freeze drying of various nanosized Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN) and the physicochemical attributes of the acquired particles were examined. Primaquine loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles dried by the two strategies is examined. Particles were characterised by determination of size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology. In vitro and kinetic drug discharge models were also considered. Preparation parameters have no impact on the molecule morphology and properties, and the main parameter deciding the molecule attributes in the drug substance of the nanoparticle, either in the spraying or in the freezing technique of drying. The drug release profile of spray dried SLN is superior to that of the freeze dried SLN.
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Systemic delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles has as of late increased critical concern on account of its bioavailability enhancement potential ascribed to the extraordinary capacity of nanoparticles to avoid extracellular degradation to enhance selectivity in connection to the target, and to diminish dosage recurrence and also the length of the treatment by means of improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the medication (Omwoyo et al., 2014). Most examinations on systemic therapeutic nanoparticles utilize polymeric nano-carriers, especially poly (lactic-co-glycolic corrosive) (PLGA) and lipids, attributable to their entrenched biocompatibility and biodegradability. Particular to Solid Lipid Nanoformulation (SLN), the broad utilization of PVA nanoparticles as carriers are more apparent.

As opposed to other biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, for example, poly-caprolactone, PLGA and lipophilic nanoparticles are basically strong and thermally insensitive, to such an extent that they can be changed without the need of thorough formulation steps while protecting their physicochemical attributes, like size and drug loading. Various SLN formulations of spray dried PLGA and lipophilic nanoparticles as micro- scale circular aggregates of the nanoparticles have been presented for different therapuetic regimes from drugs (Ohashi et al., 2009; Sung et al., 2009; Tomoda et al., 2009) to gene (Jensen et al., 2010; Takashima et al., 2007) deliveries.

The drug discharge from polymeric nanoparticles relies on the rate of diffusion of the drug from delivery system, disintegration of the polymeric lattice and biodegradation of the polymer. In the event that disintegration and biodegradation are moderate process, the discharge rate is emphatically impacted by drug dissemination from nanoparticles. Factors like the association between drug and the polymer, the condition of consolidation of the drug in the carrier system, the pKa of the drug and the concentration of drug stacked in nanoparticles can affect the dispersion rate of the drug from nanostructured framework (Allen et al., 1999). The condition of fusing of the drug in the system and interaction between drug and polymer are critical variables that influence the discharge profile (Joeng et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2007).

The improvement of nanostructured materials in biomedical drug delivery systems has turned out to be a topical heading in cutting edge materials science as they have shown to provide uncommon properties in contrast with sub-micrometer and micrometer partners (Moriarty, 2001). Notwithstanding, treatment of nanoparticles is troublesome because of their volatilty. A standout amongst the most stretched out courses to permit treatment of nanoparticulate systems is the generation of free-streaming agglomerates from colloidal suspensions subjected to a controlled drying process, like spray or freeze drying.

The generation of SLN, the dispersion and control of the nanoparticles is a key stride. The attributes of the suspension determine the morphology of the particles and their properties. A few investigations have revealed the scattering and security of suspensions of nanosized SLN, for example, RAPAMUNE, EMEND, TriCor and MEGACE among others as further explained in table 1 (Kesisoglou et al., 2007).

Table 1.
Current marketed pharmaceutical products utilizing nanocrystalline API
ProductDrug compoundIndicationCompanyProduct
RAPAMUNESirolimusImmunosuppressantWyethElan Drug Delivery Nanocrystals
EMENDAprepitantAntiemeticMerckElan Drug Delivery Nanocrystals
TriCorFenofibrateTreatment of hypercholesterolemiaAbbottElan Drug Delivery Nanocrystals
MEGACEMegestrol acetateAppetite stimulantPAR PharmaceuticalElan Drug Delivery Nanocrystals
ES TriglideFenofibrateTreatment of hypercholesterolemiaFirst Horizon PharmaceuticalSkyePharma IDD-P technology

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