Content-Based Web Watermarking

Content-Based Web Watermarking

Nighat Mir (Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Effat University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/ijksr.2013070107
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Abstract

With the increasing growth in internet use, information has turned into e-information and provides a greater freedom for information sharing. This also brings a greater need for information security by protecting copyrights of online authors. A novel tamper proof web watermarking technique has been proposed in this paper that uses the textual features of different languages. Initially three different languages (English, Urdu and Arabic) have been used in this research for testing and verification, however this idea can be extended to other languages. Watermarks are generated based on language features and further secured by encryption using advanced encryption standard algorithm to ensure another layer of security. Encrypted watermarks have been embedded into HTML page utilizing the structural aspects of markup language. Experimental results have shown that copied information can be recognized by using the proposed system even after modification attacks without requiring the disclosure of watermark information.
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1. Introduction And Background

Digitalizing information has evolved the concepts of e-libraries, e-books, e-learning, e-stores, e-business, e-government, e-diagnosis with the easy and economical source of sharing information online. However, information security and digital copyrights are now exposed to more threats. Webpage content can easily be reused, copied, tampered and distributed strong mechanism to secure web page content are required. Digital watermarking can help achieving the CIA (confidentiality, integrity and authenticity), 3 basic cores of security. It allows an author to embed extra digital information (watermarks) to the source file in persistent and imperceptible way. On the hand the generated watermarks are compared to the original to detect any tempering for the sake of authenticity (Hiamg,Hang and Pan,2004,3-39). Where cryptography is used to secure information against theft by converting a plain text into cipher text and vice versa (Lee and Seoul,2008, 102-107). Both sciences can be composed to support another security layers on each other. And the same has been utilized in the proposed research idea. Digital watermarking can be visible, invisible or disguised.

Secure communication and data integrity has been a concern and research interest for ages and its reliability can be evaluated by checking the possible treats (Atallah, Raskin, Hempelmann, Ka4rahan, Sion, Topkara and Triezenberg,2002). Easy access to Internet has a great impact on increasing business volume and confidentiality of data exchange (Topkara, Taskiran and Delp, 2005).With the ever growing internet expansion and massive trade of electronic information data security and preserving copyrights is a very important area of research. Digital watermarking, cryptography and Steganography are recognized and important ways of securing information each working under different mechanism.

Text is less redundant than images, videos or audios therefore comparatively difficult to generate dependent watermarks but in the meantime it is most vital part of internet. Besides offering text watermarking the main source of carrying the text information (a webpage) also needs to be secured, which brings the need of webpage watermarking. Webpage watermarking can be dependent on the information or the structural aspects of markup languages (i.e. HTML and XML). A few techniques for HTML and XML have been proposed but they do not make use of language features very well, and a huge research scope is present in this field. Various methodologies depending on features of semantic (Brassil,Low and Maxemchuk, 1999,1181-1196), syntactic (Chen,2011), structural (Li and Dong, 2008, 348-351; Chi, Jiang and Liu, 2006,99-104), line and word shifting (Bae, Ro and Kang, 2004,94-105) have been utilized to offer text watermarking. Web watermarking is offered to confirm the data integrity (Gentry,Jain and Hevia, 2005,464-473), by making use of markup languages. Different aspects of data integrity have been discussed based on the content available on web having signatures to secure digital copyrights (Zhou and Li, 2009,47-50; Bo, Wei, Yuan, Zhi, and Dong,2009,322-325) which are used to validate the content information based on author’s information. Digital watermarking and cryptography appeared in literature (Zhi and Sang,2008;Jiansheng, Sukang and Xiaome,2009,104-107) to secure watermarks to offer webpage reliability by computing the digital fingerprints and visit counts.

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