Covalent Radii and New Applications

Covalent Radii and New Applications

Yonghe Zhang (American Huilin Institute, New York, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCCE.2018010103

Abstract

Ionocovalency theory is defined “…everything exists in ionocovalency, the harmony of ionic energy with the covalent environment.” The authors have succeeded in thoroughly studying ionic energy part of the ionocovalent theory, and will now focus target on the covalent environment part of the theory. The essence of chemical reactions and chemical bonds is the overlap of atomic orbitals, the electron density or the ionocovalent potential. The covalent radius rc is the unique parameter that can be considered as an atomic property derived from molecules for data reduction and can be assigned to the atoms interacting in molecules. In the present study, A new application view of covalent radii of multidimensional world is revealed by the ionocovalency theory which can quantitatively describe the chemical phenomena and qualitatively correlates to the universal observations.
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2. Covalent Radii

We take the shortest distances between like atoms as the single bond lengths and the half the single bond lengths as the covalent radii. The bond lengths are measured mainly by X-ray diffraction, more rarely, by neutron diffraction on molecular crystals. By rotational spectroscopy can also get highly accurate values of bond lengths. A proposed new set of covalent atomic radii for most of the elements with atomic numbers up to 96 (Table 1) have been derived from correlating with and feeding back the various experiment results and fairly well agree with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain possibly all chemical observation (Zhang, 2010).

Table 1.
Covalent radii rc
HHe
0.370.28
LiBeBCNOFNe
1.230.890.800.760.740.730.710.58
NaMgAlSiPSClAr
1.571.361.321.181.071.030.990.97
KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
1.951.741.441.321.221.171.171.171.151.111.111.231.251.221.211.171.141.16
RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
2.161.911.621.451.341.291.271.241.251.281.341.411.501.401.411.371.331.40
CsBaLaHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
2.351.981.871.441.341.301.281.261.261.291.341.441.551.541.521.531.451.42
CePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLu
1.651.651.641.671.661.851.611.591.591.581.571.561.701.56
FrRaAcThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLw
2.462.351.981.721.711.681.671.661.661.801.761.751.721.711.691.681.00

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