COVID-19 Infection in Pediatric Population: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Nursing Management in Children

COVID-19 Infection in Pediatric Population: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Nursing Management in Children

Eftychia Ferentinou (Paediatric Hospital of Athens “Agia Sofia”, Greece & University of West Attica, Greece), Despoina Pappa (“Hygeia” Hospital of Athens, Greece & University of West Attica, Greece) and Chrysoula Dafogianni (University of West Attica, Greece)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/IJRQEH.2021010102
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Abstract

COVID-19 disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, started in the province of Wuhan in China in December 2019 and has reached pandemic proportions by March 2020 affecting many countries worldwide. The purpose of this review is to present scientific evidence found until April 30, 2020 on the characteristics of COVID-19 in the pediatric population. Bibliographical review of articles has been conducted through PubMed and Google Scholar, from January to April. Most of the research included was conducted in China because only a small number of studies from Europe and other affected areas could be found, as the pandemic is still in progress. As for the children, the disease turns up with mild symptoms while the mortality rate in childhood is particularly low. The diagnosis of the disease is made through specific criteria, while a therapeutic protocol is applied for the treatment of the disease. The virus is mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract, although it has not been scientifically proven that the virus is transmitted through vertical transmission from mother to fetus.
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Epidemiological Characteristics

Evidence by bibliography review from January to May 2020 was used to describe the characteristics of COVID19 in children. As the pandemic progresses globally, the epidemiological data presented are until May 17 and they are changed every day.

Incidence on the general population

From December 31, 2019 to May 17, 2020 according to the data of the European Agency infections (European Center for disease prevention and control) 4,597,894 cases COVID 19 and 311,588 deaths were recorded. The countries with the highest death tolls are the United States with 123,091 deaths, the United Kingdom with 34,466 deaths, Italy with 31,763 deaths, France with 27,625 deaths, Spain with 27,563 deaths, Belgium with 9,005 deaths, Iran with 6,937, China with 4,638 deaths, Turkey with 4,096 and the rest of Europe follow with fewer deaths in general population until May 17, 2020. Greece recorded 162 deaths with an average age of 76 years and 2,819 confirmed cases up to May 16 (National Public Health Organization, 2020).

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