DCT Image Steganography Analysis for Privacy Preserving Data Mining

DCT Image Steganography Analysis for Privacy Preserving Data Mining

Sahar A. El-Rahman Ismail (Benha University, Cairo, Egypt and Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Dalal Al Makhdhub (Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Amal A. Al Qahtani (Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Ghadah A. Al Shabanat (Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Nouf M. Omair (Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) and Rawan S. Alomerini (Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/IJTD.2016070101
OnDemand PDF Download:
$30.00
List Price: $37.50

Abstract

We live in an information era where sensitive information extracted from data mining systems is vulnerable to exploitation. Privacy preserving data mining aims to prevent the discovery of sensitive information. Information hiding systems provide excellent privacy and confidentiality, where securing confidential communications in public channels can be achieved using steganography. A cover media are exploited using steganography techniques where they hide the payload's existence within appropriate multimedia carriers. This paper aims to study steganography techniques in spatial and frequency domains, and then analyzes the performance of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based steganography using the low frequency and the middle frequency to compare their performance using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). The experimental results show that middle frequency has the larger message capacity and best performance.
Article Preview

Introduction

Data security is considered as one of the major challenges in today’s present electronic communications. The assurance of data security can be sustained and achieved in the secrecy of its existence. In insecure communication, information hiding techniques have an important role in protecting confidential information from unauthorized access.

Steganography and watermarking are two common techniques of information hiding systems (see Figure 1), steganography is applied in confidential communication, wherein watermarking a visible or an invisible mark that is embedded to identify the ownership of the copyright (Artz, 2001). The major goal of watermarking is disabling the removability and the replacement of the watermark, while in steganography it is the concealment of a message’s presence (Chugh, 2013). Watermarking is used in identifying ownership of the copyright such as Web page art and audio files, which entails embedding a unique piece of information within a medium. Steganography is the art and science of confidential covert communication, where secret data storage is done by embedding secret data into an innocuous medium such as images, which will escape detection and be retrieved with minimum distortion at the destination (Prema& Natarajan, 2013).

Figure 1.

Disciplines of information hiding (Wandell,1995)

Steganography is a word with Greek origins that means “secret writing.” Steganography is a contemporary technique that has been used for centuries. In old eras, Greeks have used different techniques to hide secret messages such as tattooing trusted slaves’ heads and using wax covered tablets and using music scores, a method invented by Gaspar Schott, where the letters would match to specific musical notes on musical sheets (Rabah, 2004; Katzenbeisser & Petitcolas, 2000). In modern times steganography media are not limited, almost all digital file formats can be used, but formats with high degree of redundancy are more appropriate than others, since the redundancy of the bits makes it harder to detect any alteration in a medium. Image and audio files comply with this requirement (Wandell,1995; Katzenbeisser & Petitcolas, 2000). In modern times steganography media are not limited, almost all digital file formats can be used, but formats with high degree of redundancy are more appropriate than others, since the redundancy of the bits makes it harder to detect any alteration in a medium. Image and audio files comply with this requirement (Wandell, 1995; Brabin & Sadasivam, 2009).

Steganography Techniques

Two of the main steganography techniques are spatial and frequency domain as indicated in Figure 2. Spatial domain techniques substitute redundant parts of a cover with a secret message, wherein frequency domain secret information is embedded in a transform space of the signal.

Figure 2.

Steganography techniques (Prema & Natarajan, 2013)

Spatial Domain Techniques

Spatial domain methods operate directly on pixels offering fine concealment while giving a great capability of hiding information. As a result, these methods are frequently employed in steganography tools. It can reach high capacity, but it is not robust against simple modifications and is easy to detect (Chen et al., 2008).

Least Significant Bit (LSB)

LSB’s intelligibility and simplicity is what makes it commonly used. It uses insignificant bits of the cover image’s values to embed the payload. The LSBs of the cover image are replaced by the MSBs of the payload [8]. As LSB embedding takes place on noise, it can easily be modified, and destroyed, by further compression, filtering, or a less than perfect format or size conversion (Chanu et al., 2012).

Complete Article List

Search this Journal:
Reset
Open Access Articles
Volume 9: 4 Issues (2018): 1 Released, 3 Forthcoming
Volume 8: 4 Issues (2017)
Volume 7: 4 Issues (2016)
Volume 6: 4 Issues (2015)
Volume 5: 4 Issues (2014)
Volume 4: 4 Issues (2013)
Volume 3: 4 Issues (2012)
Volume 2: 4 Issues (2011)
Volume 1: 4 Issues (2010)
View Complete Journal Contents Listing