Design, Measurements, and Analysis of Enhanced Bandwidth UWB: On-Body Antenna for Ambient Intelligence Environment

Design, Measurements, and Analysis of Enhanced Bandwidth UWB: On-Body Antenna for Ambient Intelligence Environment

Raghvendra Singh (Department of Electronics and Communication, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India), Kanad Ray (Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Rajasthan, India), Preecha Yupapin (Computational Optics Research Group, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Vietnam & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Vietnam) and Jalil Ali (Faculty of Science, Institute of Advance Photonic Science, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/IJACI.2021010106
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Abstract

Ambient computing enabled for body area networks have received much consideration over the past couple of years due to its applications in biomedical, healthcare monitoring, and military systems. Such systems are attracting users in other applications like gaming, fitness, sports, and other life style tools. The fast-moving lifestyle of people impelled them in a situation of less consideration of their health and sports, and it generated the need of healthcare monitoring and tracking devices. Advances in wireless technology and embedded technology have generated keen interest in antenna, mounted on or around the body to transmit or receive the vital data of human body to on-body or off-body systems. The proposed antenna is for the use in wireless body area network (WBAN), in UWB frequency range 3.1 GHz.-10.6 GHz. Enhanced bandwidth ultra wideband (EB-UWB) patch antenna consists of the dimensions 30 mm×27 mm×1.6 mm. The prototype is fabricated and tested in free space and on-body scenario.
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1. Introduction

Nowadays Ambient intelligence is an emerging technology which can play key role in healthcare and biomedical. Ultra Wide Band antennas are providing efficient wireless link between the interconnection nodes of Ambient intelligence based healthcare network. The Ambient intelligence technology is user centric in which the protocols could be designed according to the applications of users or the co users (Guesgen & Marsland, 2016). Ambient intelligence uses various technologies like: intelligent agent, wireless sensors, reasoning & acting (link between algorithms) and human-computer interaction. Other technologies are proving the reliable existence of ambient intelligence like RFID, implantable circuit boards, various, software agents, affective computing and biometrics (Ang et al., 2016; Guesgen & Marsland, 2016).

Technology is accelerating the creation of Ambience Intelligence environment which acts as the backbone to the needs of users. Ambient Intelligence provides hidden interaction between human users and intelligent devices with conciousness of people demand and determined behaviors (Zhang et al., 2017). Various researchers are trying to add more intelligent devices in Ambient Intelligence environment to support the ability of forecasting and decision making of a personal. Practically Ambient Intelligence bounded many approaches like context awareness, artificial intelligence and embedded systems. Ambient Intelligence is facing many challenges also like advancements of machine learning and artificial intelligence. Healthcare and biomedical is the recent field which is ready to use frequently the Ambient Intelligence environment to make these fields more interactive and personal (Manogaran & Lopez, 2018; Zhang et al., 2017). Development of intelligent, wearable and electrically capable antennas is backbone of Ambient Intelligence environment to transmit and receive the wireless signals to/from the various sensors.

Ambient Intelligence environment provides high quality services to the healthcare and clinical services by using its non-intrusive and ubiqutous intelligent features. Wireless technologies have been provided user friendly environment (fast data rate, easy to install, cost effective and easy to access) to the smart platforms like Ambient Intelligence hence the antennas must meet the requirements of smart technologies (Ang et al., 2016; Chakraborty et al., 2017). These technologies uphold healthcare quality and flexibility of patient/user and improve the working of healthcare staff in terms of patient care and remote monitoring. Nowadays many hospitals are using various wifi/RFID networks, smart cameras (capable of taking out application-specific data from captured pictures), sensors and automated audio/visual devices. Figure1 is depicting the interrelation of healthcare services using Ambient Intelligence. In Figure1 hospitals (using medical information and health care system), practitioners (using intelligent diagnosis, wearable devices and health care knowledge), health insurance(using medical information system) and home care (using wearable devices and other gadgets) are interconnected using Ambient Intelligence.

Figure 1.

Interconnections of healthcare services using Ambient Intelligence [lifesciences.ieee.org]

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The Ambient intelligence creates a digital platform which is “aware” of the presence and context of the user and that is very much adaptive and responsive to the needs of user(Chakraborty et al., 2017). Smart and intelligent sensor network is required to make Ambient intelligence based network so that it can be aware of the user (Garhwal et al., 2019). Here the enhanced bandwidth UWB (Ultra Wide Band; regulatory set by Federal Communications Commision) Antenna is proposed to be used in Body Area Network which may be a hardware component for Ambient Intelligence environment. The Ultra Wide Band technology uses very low energy level for covering short distances and provides high band width (3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz), this technology can be used for personal area network (PAN) inside the indoor conditions of hospitals or clinics. The proposed antenna is a key factor of the intelligent platform of Ambient Intelligence and dominently it can be used in healthcare and biomedical applications. The wireless body area network and Ambient Intelligence are very much useful technologies and fulfill all attributes to create intelligent environment for the service of human being.

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