Determinant of Food Security on Upland Agriculture Households in Paletwa Township, Chin State of Myanmar

Determinant of Food Security on Upland Agriculture Households in Paletwa Township, Chin State of Myanmar

San Lwin (Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand) and Supaporn Poungchompu (Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/IJKSR.2017040104

Abstract

This study aims to determine food security on upland agriculture households in rural area. Food security is concerned with the first two main goals of Sustainable Development Goals, No Poverty and Zero Hunger. Myanmar is Food Insecure State that showing 14.2% that is 7.7 million of 51 million population. Chin state is least developing and Paletwa is poorest out of 324 townships. Research is applied by both qualitative and quantitative approaches. 3 Villages and 1 Quarter are chosen for qualitative method and 141upland agriculture households are selected for field survey using random sampling method. The data are analyzed by logistic regression in SPSS 17 to determine food security. Age, education, schooling years of household head, size, second occupation and no. of working people in households are socio-economic determinant and own food production and fruit access are food security determinant.
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Introduction

“Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (Food and Agriculture Organization[FAO], 1996). “It is now estimated that in 2009, there are 1.2 billion food insecure individual- the one sixth of world population”. (Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA], 2015). However, “during the past year, Food Security has improved almost in every region of the world”. (Global Food Security Index [GFSI], 2015). The researcher from Asia and Pacific Policy Studies agrees with Global Food Security Index. “Both Southeast Asia and developing East Asia have made enormous progress in lowering food insecurity in the past two decades, with prevalence dropping by 18.7 percentage points and 9.3 points, respectively”. (Timmer, 2014). In 2015, Myanmar’s Food Security ranking is 78 with the overall score of 44.00. Compared with 2014, Myanmar increase food security +7.7 overall score that is the most increasing country after Egypt (Global Food Security Index [GFSI], 2015). Although Myanmar is middle food insecure country, Chinese scholars mentions Myanmar is less production country. “There are also countries that have favourable climates but produce less than average amount food per person: Bosnia and Herzegovina, El Salvador, Gabon, Georgia, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Myanmar” (Yu & You, 2013).

The Heads of State and Government and High Representatives, meeting at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 25 to 27 September 2015 as the Organization celebrates its seventieth anniversary, have decided Sustainable Development Goals with 169 associated targets which are integrated and indivisible “We are determined to end poverty and hunger in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human being can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment” (United Nations [UN], 2016). Food Security is sorely related with Sustainable Development Goals [SDG]. In their second SDG, Zero hunger extends to end hunger, achieve food security promote sustainable agriculture. This study will fulfil a tiny piece of this goal in study country, Myanmar.

In Myanmar, there are 5.7 million ha cultivated land that is 12.89% of the total land area of 676,578 sq.km (Myanmar Agriculture Census, 2003), but the World Bank reveal that cultivated land is 19.3% of the total land area (World Bank Group, 2013). 66% of the total population 51 million still live in rural area (FAO, 2015). Agriculture contribute 60% to Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and employ 65% of the population. (Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2016) Therefore almost all rural population engage in agriculture. Out of 14 States and Regions, Chin is least developing region. It has 0.5 million population and mostly settlement in rural area (Myanmar Institute of Integrated Development [MIID], 2014). The poverty rate is 73% and food insecurity rate is up to 52%. “Food insecurity is therefore a cyclical and chronic problem, which affects all townships of the State. The result of the 2013 World Food Programme [WFP] food security monitoring in Chin State showed that the food insecurity levels in the State ranged from moderate to severe” (World Food Program, 2013) “Chin has the smallest average and median rural land holding, 2.1 and 2.0 acre, respectively” (United Nations Development Program, 2015).

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