Dynamic PL&T using Two Reference Nodes Equipped with Steered Directional Antenna for Significant PL&T Accuracy

Dynamic PL&T using Two Reference Nodes Equipped with Steered Directional Antenna for Significant PL&T Accuracy

Niraj Shakhakarmi (Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Navajo Technical College, Crownpoint, NM, USA) and Dhadesugoor R. Vaman (Centre for Excellence in Battlefield Communications, A&M University, Prairie View, TX, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/jitn.2012100103
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Dynamic Position Location and Tracking (PL&T) is proposed deploying the integrated approach of zone finding and triangulation using two friendly nodes equipped with Steered Directional Antenna (DA) in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). This approach allows the system to use only two references instead of a typical 3 references for a straight triangulation. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm with references using directional antennas shows significant improvement over triangulation using references with Omni-directional antennas as the beam power is concentrated. However, dynamic switching of reference nodes is frequently required as the target moves outside the predicted zone. This paper presents a better tracking accuracy in using proposed dynamic PL&T as compared to other PL&T techniques. The multipath fading is also addressed with the use of KV transform coding technique which uses forward error correction and sample interleaving achieves greater than 90% tracking accuracy with BERs of 10-6 or better.
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Review Of Literature

The forward movement based prediction considers zone prediction within a constrained forward movement of a target node (Lu, Fletcher, Ian, Pietro, & Zhang, 2008). It uses single reference node, limited random movement and does not consider sharp turns or obstacles which can be addressed by the optimal zone forming that considers any random movement. In addition, the received signal strength based prediction has better tracking accuracy over the triangulation method as long as multi-path fading is small and longer averaging availability (Malhotra, Krasniewski, Yang, Bagchi, & Chappell, 2005). The signal is spread in the lack of zone and errors are accumulated in the computation of both the distance and the angle and has limited non-random trajectory. This can be resolved by Zone finding and adaptive beam forming.

On the other hand, multi hop based prediction deploy the position locations of nodes estimation using multiple levels of reference nodes which increases the cumulative errors in multi hop measurements and has no beam adaptation used (Siuli et al. 2005). Thus, significantly reduces accuracy of tracking. This is over-come by zone forming with dynamic switching of reference nodes and dynamic ranging which provides improved accuracy in the location tracking. Furthermore, directional lines intersection based prediction localization of nodes use point of intersection of highly directional beams for low speed mobile anchor nodes (Zhang & Yu, 2010). This has higher overhead in scanning and does not address random trajectory. This can be addressed by zone forming and adaptive beam forming which reduces the scanning overhead in the random trajectory.

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