Effects of Training and Motivation Practices on Performance and Task Efficiency: The Case of Brunei Meat Slaughterhouses

Effects of Training and Motivation Practices on Performance and Task Efficiency: The Case of Brunei Meat Slaughterhouses

Hjh Siti Noradi Hidayati Hj Abas (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei), Hjh Noorhidayatul Hafizah Hj Md Yussof (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei), Fatin Nuramarina Yusra (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei) and Pg Siti Rozaidah Pg Hj Idris (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/IJABIM.20211001.oa5
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Abstract

This paper solely focuses on the two Brunei halal meat slaughterhouses and offers suggestions on how these findings can translate into considerations for the halal industry in Brunei. In Islamic law, dhabīḥah is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals. This method of slaughtering lawful animals has several conditions to be fulfilled. This method requires proper training and mindset in order to be carried out correctly. This research is explorative using qualitative primary data collection through the use of interviews. The participants comprise slaughterhouse employees using a purposive sampling method. The intent is that this research adds to the body of literature seeking to understand the complexities of training and motivation in meat slaughterhouses and offer insight on the complexities between training, motivation, and performance. It also identifies how differences in organisational structure can impact the approach to the training and employee motivation approaches.
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Introduction

In the livestock industry, slaughtering is part of the activity that has become an essential part of our world today. These livestock animals can be categorised into two: big animals such as cattle, cow and goat or smaller animals such as chicken. Generally, a slaughterhouse or an abattoir is where animals are commonly slaughtered for consumption (Singh et al., 2014). However, in some cases, animals can also be slaughtered if they are diseased or if their condition is deemed to be unfit for consumption. The slaughtering of livestock animals is also being practised for religious purposes and Brunei being a predominantly Muslim country is no exception.

With the slaughtering of livestock animals to be deemed as essential in our world today, there are several laws made for the industry. These laws are made to ensure the existing abattoirs to ensure that the slaughter of these livestock animals is done as humanely as possible while also ensuring the meat is safe for human consumption. For instance, the Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System or ESCAS is an assurance system that is based in Australia. The ESCAS procedure is constructed in a manner that it safeguards the welfare of the livestock animals. It is evident based on their four principles which are animal welfare, control through the supply chain, traceability through the supply chain and independent audit (Commonwealth of Australia, 2015). The animal welfare principle includes the proper treatment and handling of these animals to their arrival in the importing country. It is also up to the point of the slaughter of these animals.

Furthermore, working in an abattoir is physically and mentally demanding. Prominent studies such as the one conducted by Victor and Barnard (2016) has specifically looked into how slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Due to the monotonous and physically demanding nature of the job (van Holland et al., 2015), it is not only important but also critical for the employees to remain resilient and motivated. This is particularly interesting in Brunei as it is found that youths in Brunei preferred jobs that are prestigious, highly paid, stable, and are less likely to take risks (Musa & Idris, 2020).

Moreover, when one has no prior experience, the tasks will seem more complicated and daunting. At the same time, it is not necessary to have a specific background in the slaughterhouse industry. Yet there is always a strong emphasis for potential employees to have basic knowledge of animal feeding and handling. Victor and Barnard (2016) note that slaughterhouse employees with basic education and training are often faced with the reality of low income and limited family resources, which seem particularly taxed in their capacity to maintain their psychological health. Due to the issues of high injuries and the nature of job, these have contributed to the high rate of employee turnover (Dorovskikh, 2015). Therefore, this study seeks to explore and understand the complexities of training and motivation in meat slaughterhouses (using Islamic law) and offer insights on the complexities between training, motivation and performance. By looking at two slaughterhouses in Brunei with two different organisational structure, this study also aims to identify how differences in organisational structure can impact the approach to the training and employee motivation approaches.

To date, there is no research that has been done specifically on the relationship of training, motivation and performance in meat slaughterhouses in the Bruneian context. Some of the recent studies conducted related to meat slaughterhouses outside Brunei are regarding the well-being of slaughterhouse employees in South Africa (Victor & Barnard, 2016) and the working conditions and public health risks in slaughterhouses situated in Western Kenya (Cook et al., 2017), which will be used as guides for this study. Though there has been an increase in publication on Halal studies in the Brunei context looking at various issues such as the regulatory process governing the halal meat and meat products processing industry (Khalid et al., 2018), as well as a research on identifying halal logistics constraints (Talib, 2020).

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