Energy Aware Dynamic Mode Decision for Cellular D2D Communications by Using Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

Energy Aware Dynamic Mode Decision for Cellular D2D Communications by Using Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

Loganathan Jayakumar (Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India), Ankur Dumka (Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Dehradun, India) and S. Janakiraman (Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/IJACI.2020070107
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Recent developments in mobile network communication increases the usage of the cellular users and their wideband data transfer. Sometimes, network operators may get overloaded because of voice and data transmission between nodes which are under the same coverage area. Cellular device-to-device communication is one of the emerging technologies to overcome current increasing demands for spectrum in cellular networks. It reduces network traffic at centralized terminal stations by enabling direct communication link between source and destination. Mode selection is one of the steps required to fix defined configuration for transmitting data between the pairs of nodes. In this article, the mode selection problem has been considered as multi-objective decision-making problem and applied classical multi-criteria decision models such as analytic hierarchy process and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution models. From simulated results, combination of these two has been proven as the most promising combination for mode selection problem in cellular device-to-device communications under three different types of data services such as text, audio, and video. A dynamically mode selection process has to be carried out with multiple factors which are affecting the performance of the system using proposed model.
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1. Introduction

Device-to-device (D2D) communication is one of the promising approaches to communication between radio devices directly, for future generations. It plays an important role in upcoming cellular networks. In LTE-advanced the main challenges are to recover the local area services and enhance spectrum efficiency. In LTE-advanced, D2D communication helps to achieve those challenges (Sree Harsha & Tirupal, 2014). The 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) standardization is the most important standardization for 5G systems. Multiple numbers of solutions working on current cellular network model to increase the performance, such a way, this work has been defined as optimal D2D communication with enhanced mode selection. It is used in different fields like public safety, social services, network traffic offloading and proximity-based services.

Device-to-device communication provides direct communication between nearby devices without using a base station (BS) (Asadi, Wang, & Mancuso, 2014; Feng, Lu, Yuan-Wu, Li, Li & Feng, 2014). In normal cellular systems, all communications travel over/across the core network, even if the communication parties are close to each other. This type of architecture suitable for low data rate services like text messages and voice calls. In present days, cellular users use high data rate services (video streaming, online gaming, and proximity-based social services). These services could be in the range of direct communication, i.e. D2D communications. It mainly achieves three goals i.e. hop gain, reuse gain and proximity gain. Hop gain comes from the fact that D2D communications only use one hop to communicate with devices directly. Reuse gain is introduced when D2D users reuse the channels of existing cellular resources with proper interference. The proximity gain is attained due to communications occurred in close proximity. Mainly D2D communication has 2 phases. (1) peer-discovery where devices aware of their locations and also detects nearby devices (or) services. For discovering nearby devices D2D uses two approaches. They are direct discovery approach and centralized discovery approach. (2) Communication establishment where D2D devices exchange their information by using the D2D link. For communication, D2D exchange their data directly (or) by using an optimized path through the eNB. D2D communication networks consist of 2 main structures (1) stand-Alone D2D (without infrastructure) (2) network-Assisted D2D (with infrastructure).

The main difference between these structures is the existence of infrastructure. In stand-Alone D2D, systems organize the communications without infrastructure. In network-Assisted D2D, communications are organized with the help of infrastructure. D2D network architecture consists of D2D applications, network management and D2D area network. D2D area network consists of a swarm of devices, data aggregators and gateways. Swarm devices directly send the data from one device to another device with the help of D2D links. Data aggregators collect data from different nodes and send them to the accessed network by using D2D gateways. The accessed network may be a wired or wireless network. Network management consists of an access network and core network. Core network connected to service providers who manage the D2D services.

1.1. Challenges of D2D Communications

  • 1.

    Resource allocation: It is one of the important issues in D2D communications, due to its effectiveness in interference. For example, eNB can assign cellular resources to D2D links, by that it can reduce the co-channel interference and improves the spectral efficiency. Game theory is one of the popular techniques for resource allocation;

  • 2.

    Security: D2D communication uses different technologies (like blue-tooth, Wi-Fi and IOT). These technologies mainly concentrated on reliable and fast communication. At the time, it needs to provide more security. D2D communications are vulnerable to various security issues like passive eavesdropping, active eavesdropping and side channel attacks;

  • 3.

    Interference management: In D2D communications, D2D users and cellular users using the same part of the spectrum, it causes interference in each pair of the device;

  • 4.

    Mode selection: In in-band D2D communications, D2D users use three modes of operations (dedicated mode, reuse mode and cellular mode), based on their requirements. In this paper, we are going to discuss mode selection.

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