Energy Efficient CA based Page Rank Validation Model: A Green Approach in Cloud

Energy Efficient CA based Page Rank Validation Model: A Green Approach in Cloud

Arnab Mitra (Computer Innovative Research Society (CIRS), Howrah, India) and Anirban Kundu (Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Kolkata, India & Computer Innovative Research Society (CIRS), Howrah, India)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/IJGC.2017070104
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Page rank plays an important role in processing of an indexed list for relevant web pages/ clouds by search engines. Validation of computed page rank is significantly important towards the reliability enhancement for a computed page rank. Besides, energy efficiency is a major concern towards environmental sustainability. Detailed analysis on the Cellular Automata based page rank validation model explores that energy efficiency, and low cost physical implementation capability are present in it, and thus it explores its potential competence as a green model in Cloud environment. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of proposed design.
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Cloud Computing and Page Rank

Cloud computing is referred to as the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted over the Internet to process, manage and store data (Sheth et al., 2002; Delvenne, 2005; Lin, 2005; Richardson et al., 2006; Chung, 2010; and Dao et al., 2013). Search engine plays an important role in Internet based information retrieval process with indexed list of web resources/Clouds in view of relevancy of the contents with reference to the user query. Page rank refers the index of a web page/Cloud with reference to the relevancy of a user-query. Low value in computed page rank means high rank in the sorted list. Several static and dynamic algorithms were presented towards the enhancement of page rank computation. Studies on search engine optimization (SEO) clinched that page rank (Delvenne, 2005; and Chung, 2010) computation is dynamic in nature (Kundu et al., 2006 and 2007). Hence the modelling, verification and validation of computed page rank may be useful to enhance the reliability of computed page rank. A typical linked architecture of clouds is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1 is inspired from the linked based Cloud structure as described in (Mitra et al., 2015).

Web traffic refers to the amount of data sent/received by visitor(s) to/from a web site, which is a major parameter towards controlling the Internet traffic and thus, page rank computation (Mitra et al., 2015). In-links (hyperlinks/references on other web sites that send web traffic into a web site), and out-links (hyperlinks/references of a websites that send web traffic to other web sites) play a significant role to control web traffic (Kundu et al., 2006; and Mitra et al., 2015). Some important parameters to be observed as discussed in (Mitra et al., 2015) for analyzing the web traffic are as followed.

  • Number of visitors

  • Average number of web pages viewed per visitor

  • Average duration of visiting time (session)

  • Average number web page views in a time frame

  • Domain classes of the web sites

  • Busy times/ rush hours

  • Referrers, etc.

Figure 1.

Typically linked architecture for Clouds


A typical linked Cloud architecture is presented in Figure 1, which is very similar to the linked architecture between web sites. Directed arrows in Figure 1 represent the link between two Clouds. An outgoing arrow from a Cloud represent the out-link where as an incoming arrow to a Cloud represents in-link.

On the other hand, now-a-days, green approach in Cloud is a major research focus in Cloud computing. Green computing is referred to as the environmentally responsible and eco-friendly use of computers and their resources at low energy consumption, resulting reduced environmental impact. Green Cloud is a buzzword that denotes the probable environmental welfares realized at low energy consumption for Cloud services delivered over the Internet. Several researches presented different designs targeting possible enhancements in Cloud and Green computing. Thus, several researches in view of energy analysis in Cellular Automata based distributed computing (Agrawal et al., 2012), web pages (Guha et al., 2015 and 2016), and Clouds (Berl et al., 2010; Kliazovich et al., 2010; Baliga et al., 2011; and Düben et al., 2015) were presented.

Cellular Automata (CA) are considered as a discrete mathematical model towards the studies towards a variety of complex applications as inherent parallel computing, support towards easy integration with very large-scale integration (VLSI) based chip fabrication, and cheap physical modelling capability are found with CA based models (Wolfram, 1984; and Chaudhuri et al., 1997). CA based models were presented for energy analysis (Agrawal, 2012), page ranking (Kundu et al., 2006 and 2007) and validation of computed page rank (Mitra et al., 2015). Unfortunately, energy investigation in view of CA based page rank validation model is not found, which may be an important criterion towards implementation of Green technology in Clouds. Hence CA based model towards page rank validation in Clouds is considered in present research. Brief discussion on CA preliminaries are presented in the next section.

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