Gasoline and Synthetic Fuel from Plastic Waste: Study for Engine Performance

Gasoline and Synthetic Fuel from Plastic Waste: Study for Engine Performance

Apip Amrullah (Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru, Indonesia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMMME.2016040103
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Abstract

Currently the use of motor gasoline from year to year increase. In 2010 the number of vehicles in Indonesia about 26,706,705 vehicles, in 2011 amounted to 30,769,093 vehicles and 2012 amounted to 38,156,278 vehicles. This resulted in the consumption of petroleum fuels and exhaust emissions in motor vehicles is increasing. To overcome these problems, conducted research on synthetic fuel which is one of the alternative fuel sources. This research was conducted at gasoline engine. Variations in fuel mixture gasoline and synthetic fuel. This research will be able to generate and determine the effect of fuel mixture gasoline-synthetic fuel on levels of exhaust emissions, to determine the effect of fuel mixture gasoline-synthetic fuel for engine performance. Based on the analysis of performance and exhaust emissions test on a gasoline engine, for most engine performance is good and efficient set at first to mix synthetic fuel.
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Introduction

The invention of plastics is a major milestone that led to improvement in the quality of the lives of human beings. Since its first synthesis in early 1900s, plastics have substituted many types of materials such as wood, metals and ceramics in production of consumer products, as they are light, durable, resistance to corrosion by most chemicals, diversity of applications, ease to processing and low cost. Other than the mentioned advantages of plastics, studies have shown that plastic-based products are responsible for reduction in cost of production in different fields of human endeavor (Sartorius I., 2010).

High Level Convention on Environment and Development in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil has discussed the issue of global warming and the Indonesian delegation also participated in the signing of active participation in various meetings to discuss its implementation. (Murdiyarso, 2003).

The global environment has suffered from air pollution that has huge implications for global climate change since the industrial revolution because the industry is built with a source of energy derived from coal, oil and gas greenhouse dispose of waste, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.

In the other hand, from manufacturing to disposal stage, plastic garbage emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by production activities require about 12 million barrels of oil and 14 million trees every year and at the stage of disposal in landfill, plastic waste also emit greenhouse gases and also can threaten human health. Plastic garbage only in the recycle or in fuel can increase the levels of toxic substances such as CCl up to 2-fold and will decompose into the air. Behind the negative side of the plastic waste, plus side to use as an alternative energy more beneficial to the environment and human welfare. Well as power plant litter mapun as an alternative fuel by way of gasification (D.M.Mudita, 2012).

The plastic waste can be utilized to make fuel for the engine. The process of making fuel from plastic is called pyrolysis. The assorted waste plastic is fed into a reactor along with 1% (by weight) catalyst and 10% (by weight) coal and maintained at a temperature of 300e400 C at atmospheric pressure for about 3e4 h. The pyrolysis process involves the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules produces hydrocarbons with small molecular mass (e.g. Ethane) that can be separated by fractional distillation and used as fuels and chemicals. (J. Devaraj, 2015).

Currently the use of motor gasoline from year to year increase. Indonesian police statistics in 2010 the number of vehicles in Indonesia about 26,706,705 vehicles, in 2011 amounted to 30,769,093 vehicles and 2012 amounted to 38,156,278 vehicles. This resulted in the consumption of petroleum fuels and exhaust emissions in motor vehicles is increasing. It is really very worrying, because of the increased use of fossil fuels will decrease while demand for oil is increasing.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), as the fit tempo.com 4th edition April 2012, claims will continue to look for ways to adjust the volume of subsidized fuel consumption. With the search for alternative fuel sources of energy other, although only as a fuel mix that already exist.

Many studies related to engine performance, among others is Akbar A (2011), examined the effect of a mixture of bioethanol with premium fuel as fuel for performance and exhaust emissions in motor vehicles, with variation mixture 0%-v, 2.5%-v, 5%-v, 7.5% -v, and 10%-v. For testing exhaust emissions premium fuel mixture of 90% -10% bioethanol has the lowest CO value with the value of 0.023%, while the value of the lowest HC on premium fuel mixture of 97.5% - 2.5% bioethanol with a value of 32 ppm.

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