Handoff and Route Optimization in Mobile Networks over IEEE 802.16e

Handoff and Route Optimization in Mobile Networks over IEEE 802.16e

Badiea Abdulkarem Mohammed (School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia) and Tat-Chee Wan (School of Computer Sciences/ National Advanced IPv6 Centre (NAV6), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/jmcmc.2013040103
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Abstract

To fulfill the need for on-the-move and uninterrupted internet connectivity in Mobile Networks, IETF NEMO working group was created to extend basic end-host mobility support in Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) protocol. NEMO Basic Support Protocol (NEMO) has been standardized by this group to provide the network mobility support. However, the handover latency in NEMO is high and, the nested tunnels’ problem in the nested NEMO networks is not considered. Many schemes have been proposed to solve these problems by optimizing the handover signaling procedure, and by proposing routing optimization scheme for NEMO. Better optimized signaling procedure is proposed in this paper, and a proposed Routing Optimization scheme as a solution for the lack of the nested tunnels’ problem is proposed as well. Analytical results highlight the importance of the proposed scheme comparing to others are provided, revealing that the proposed scheme has the lowest handover latency and disruption time.
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Introduction

To provide uninterrupted connectivity to the mobile nodes (MNs), Johnson, Perkins, and Arkko (2004) have standardized MIPv6. To manage the mobility of entire networks instead of managing the mobility of the Mobile Nodes, IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) has standardized NEMO basic support protocol (Devarapalli, Wakikawa, & Pertruscu, 2005). The NEMO basic support protocol brings forward connectivity to all the mobile nodes within a Mobile Router (MR), but the handover latency (Manner & Kojo, 2004) in this protocol is high and not suitable with the multimedia applications like streaming video, VoIP, and music downloads. Additionally, the nested mobility (Ernst & Lach, 2007) in NEMO might introduce significant overhead on the data packets because each level of nesting introduces another IPv6 header encapsulation. The high handover latency exists because this protocol focuses in network-layer handover phase and this phase starts after the link-layer handover phase is completed. The pin-ball routing and the multiple encapsulation results from the nested tunnels are not considered in the basic NEMO description (Kim, Park, Kim, & Huh, 2006; Faqir & Christian, 2011).

The inefficient routing of packets in nested NEMO causes several performance issues, where data packets will be tunneled/detunneled many times undergoing repeated levels of encapsulations/decapsulations. Such routing of packets, prevalently named as pin-ball routing, is considered a serious performance limitation, and its harmful effect is maximum during intra-nest routing. IPv6 Reverse Routing Header (RRH) has been proposed in (Thubert & Molteni, 2007) to provide Route Optimizing (RO) in NEMO by adapted IPv4 Loose Source and Record Route (LSRR) for IPv6. RRH uses Tree Discovery protocol (Thubert, 2007) to enable the MRs to find out the level of nesting. The drawbacks of RRH that it requires extra packet overhead to record the route, changes to HA in order to interpret and process the reverse routing header, and additional signaling and processing overhead to find out the level of nesting. ORC (Wakikawa & Watari, 2004) introduces a new entity called an ORC Router and thus require additional support from the network other than maintaining a tunnel between the MR and the ORC router. Light-NEMO network model (Sabeur at al., 2005) and Neron (Faqir & Christian, 2011) introduce optimized rout path network models, but they require a modification to the Router Advertisement message and the Binding Update message.

To enhance the handover latency, The FH80216e (Jang, Jee, Han, Park, & Cha, 2008) was suggested to provide fast and low latency handoff for the Mobile Network Nodes (MNN) with IEEE802.16e link (Jee, Madanapalli, & Mandin, 2007). IEEE 802.16 family of standards has been developed to come up to the demand for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Networks. The following version of the standard IEEE802.16e was provided to support the mobile terminals. This family of standards describes physical (PHY) layer and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer functionalities with many advanced characteristics to provide ubiquitous broadband access and flexible networking for all sorts of terminals. The Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) system provides its own link-layer handover solution for the mobile networks based on IEEE802.16e, but because of the IP addressing and complex mobility pattern in the wireless access network, providing an effective handover scheme to handle all sorts of mobility is still challenging. FH80216e has been proposed to try to overcome this challenge.

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