Implementing a Cohesive Zone Interface in a Diamond-Coated Tool for 2D Cutting Simulations

Implementing a Cohesive Zone Interface in a Diamond-Coated Tool for 2D Cutting Simulations

Feng Qin (Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA) and Kevin Chou (Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama,Tuscaloosa, AL, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/ijmfmp.2014010103
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Abstract

The interface properties and deposition residual stresses may have significant effects on the diamond-coated tool performance. However, it is still not fully understood how the interface mechanical behavior and deposition residual stress together influence the thermo-mechanical behavior of a diamond-coated tool during machining. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) cutting simulation incorporating both deposition residual stresses and an interface cohesive zone model has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of evaluating coating delamination of a diamond-coated tool during cutting. It has been shown that even the residual deposition stresses alone may result in failure initiations in the cohesive zone (i.e., the interface). In addition, the study further demonstrates the implementation of a cohesive zone interface in a diamond-coated tool in 2D cutting simulation. An example of cohesive failures occurred during the cutting simulation is presented. The result further shows that a larger uncut chip thickness will result in cohesive delamination of the coating-substrate interface during cutting.
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Introduction

Diamond films, using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies, have been exploited to realize to coat commercial tungsten-carbide (WC) cutting tools as an alternative to polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools because of reduced fabrication costs, though the tool life per cutting tip is still inferior to PCD counterparts. From the literature, experiments testing CVD diamond-coated tool performance have confirmed that coating delamination is the major failure mode of CVD diamond-coated tools (Chou & Liu, 2005).

Interface adhesion is an essential issue in most coating delamination, as has been demonstrated from theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Griffith’s theory of brittle fracture provides the fundamentals of fracture mechanics (Griffith, 1920; Griffith, 1924). His ideas were not limited to brittle fracture, and further, Irwin (1957; 1964) succeeded his work and applied to ductile materials. Fracture toughness is critical to understand energy dissipation mechanisms in the delamination process zone, which characterizes the onset of fracture during the fracture process. Brocks (2005) stated that, generally, two types of mechanisms are developed. One is the emission and motion of dislocations from the crack tip (Rice, 1992; Rice & Thomson, 1974; Rice & Tracey, 1969; Thomason, 1985; Tvergaard, 1982), a mechanism involving the formation, growth, and coalescence of voids. To address the interface fracture, a crack problem, a cohesive zone model is introduced ahead of the crack tip to simulate the material degradation and separation. Barenblatt (1962) and Dugdale (1960) first formulated and applied the concept of cohesive zone models (CZM) with the traction-separation law (Figure 1) to interpret interface decohesion involving the crack initiation, growth, and coalescence. In their model, the interface traction first increases with the separation until it reaches a maximum value, and then it falls due to interface weakening and eventually decreases to zero. Xu and Needleman (1994) presented a cohesive zone model for simulating dynamic crack growths. Their results agreed with a wide range of experiments on fast crack growth in brittle solids. Later, Nakamura and Wang (2001) applied a cohesive zone model to simulate crack propagations in porous materials. The observed numerical errors from the cohesive elements increasing with the model compliance need to be minimized by carefully choosing the parameters for the cohesive model. Gao and Bower (2004) made some improvement in avoiding the convergence problem in finite element simulations of crack nucleation and growth at cohesive interfaces. They solved the convergence problem in quasi-static finite element computations by introducing a small viscosity in the constitutive equations for the cohesive interfaces. Repetto, Radovitzky, and Ortiz (2000) applied a tension-shear cohesive law model to simulate the dynamic fracture and fragmentation of glass rods. They demonstrated that the cohesive law, unlike damage theories, introduces well-defined fracture energy with spurious mesh-dependencies, such that the cohesive models give materials with a characteristic length. Xia et al. (2007) applied a cohesive zone model, including the factor stability found by Gao and Bower (2004), to simulate coating delamination under contact loading. They established delamination mechanism maps for a strong elastic coating on an elastic-plastic substrate subject to contact loading.

Figure 1.

Typical traction-separation response (Hu, Chou & Thompson, 2008)

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