Importance of 3D Visualization for Land Use Planning, Construction and Management of the Karsıyaka Settlement Area (Izmir-Turkey)

Importance of 3D Visualization for Land Use Planning, Construction and Management of the Karsıyaka Settlement Area (Izmir-Turkey)

Mehmet Ozcelik (Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey) and Sevnur Yeniceli (Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/IJ3DIM.2015070102
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Due to recent technological advances in 3D geographic information system (GIS); These 3D visualization technologies have been widely used in urban planning decisions, including: where to build, how to plan for natural disasters, the use of finite resources, how to incorporate sustainable practices, designing for growing populations and other engineering applications. In this study 3D GIS visualization technology is applied to Karsiyaka (Izmir) settlement area to show its applicability for the land use planning, construction and management. This study is carried out in four different stages: In the first stage; 1:25000 scale topographic maps and 1:1000 scale geological maps are digitised in GIS environment and their attribute tables are stored in the GIS databases. In the second stage; sub-surface of the study area was visualized using 3D technologies. This visualisation process is used to assist decision-making for land use planning. In the third stage; and useful soil class zonation maps are performed to be used in further studies. At last stage; after research at this site, the construction applications of Karsiyaka have been multiplied.
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1. Introduction

In the last decade, with the advances in computer technologies, GIS is frequently used for spatial data management and manipulation. A geo-environmental evaluation for urban land-use planning often requires a large amount of spatial information. GIS is a powerful tool by evaluation of huge numbers of data for the geo-scientific evaluation in performing of such analyses on very large areas in very short times. An important feature of a GIS is the ability to generate new information by integrating the existing diverse datasets sharing a compatible spatial referencing system. Although GIS technology has been widely used to assess natural geological hazards, groundwater vulnerability assessment and site selection for waste disposal, studies which are related with geo-environmental evaluation for urban land-use planning (Dai et al., 2001). 3D modelling technology achieves rapid development, and all kinds of modelling theories and methods are constantly put forward. Planners, urban designers, landscape architects and other planning professionals use computerized visualization techniques to encourage participation by the public. When performing pilot studies in preparation for long duration infrastructure construction, it is important to account for potentially fatal risks arising from geological issues. A 3D geotechnical model that is able to show the spatial distribution of and geotechnical variations in the subsurface can more accurately dimension a geotechnical unit, guide a pertinent geotechnical investigation towards a parameters (Orlic 1997; Breunig 1999; Hack et al., 2005; Ozmutlu and Hack, 2003; Dong et al., 2014; Tegtmeier 2014). Geologically weak areas, select an adequate foundation type, and facilitate the back-analysis of estimated models and parameters (Hack et al., 2005; Ozmutlu and Hack, 2003).

There are many examples of the application of 3D geological modelling in the field of civil engineering. The British Geological Survey has used a 3D geological information system (GIS) to build 3D geological models at a wide range of scales to meet the requirements of different applications (Lelliott et al., 2006, 2009; Robins et al., 2008; Royse et al., 2009). The General Inspectorate of Quarries of France, which is in charge of ground-related issues in Paris, has developed a multilayer 3D geological model of the city of Paris covering a 105 km2 area to facilitate the mapping of susceptibility to ground movement due to gypsum dissolution (Thierry et al., 2009). Kostic et al., (2007) have constructed two 3D geological models (with different sizes and resolutions) of the distribution of Quaternary deposits in southwest Germany in order to elucidate the distributions and volumes of exploitable mineral deposits. Tonini et al., (2008) have reported a geological modelling procedure suitable for the reconstruction of 3D models and for applications in tunnelling studies. The Geological Survey of China has launched a nationwide 3D geological modelling project focusing on the subsoil used in engineering activities. The capital city of Beijing was chosen as the starting point for this project (Dong, 2008). Apel (2006) and Choi et al., (2009) have extended a 2D GIS such that it can be used for 3D geo-modelling applications via improved data management and a plug-in. Various authors, including Fernandez et al., (2004; 2009), Dhont et al., (2005), Tonini et al., (2008), Willscher et al., (2009), Chiles et al., (2004), Caumon et al., (2009), and Kaufmann and Martin (2008), have proposed a range of 3D geo-modelling methodologies, such as structural data-based methods, stochastic modelling, potential-field co-kriging, and large data-based methods.

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