Improving Learning Outcomes for Higher Education Through Smart Technology

Improving Learning Outcomes for Higher Education Through Smart Technology

James O. Connelly (University of Phoenix, Tempe, USA) and Paula Miller (University of Phoenix, Tempe, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCSSA.2018010101

Abstract

The ever-decreasing time between the doubling of knowledge creates a problem for education concerning how to handle information overload. To address this issue, educators must learn to make learning more effective and more efficient. Currently, there is more to learn and less time in which to learn. Therefore, Smart technology offers a solution: It helps manage cognitive load through the formation of a schema, which helps humans learn more with greater efficiency and greater effectiveness. This can be accomplished by instructional design that makes use of Gagné's conditions of learning and the nine instructional events based on them. These can be brought together through the ADDIE instructional design model. This process is amplified by using Smart instructional technology to create the learning material and to deliver it to the learner. The educational venues for learning include face to face, online, or mobile communication devices. Examples are provided about the conditions of learning, nine instructional events, and the ADDIE Model, which are applied to classical guitar instruction. Further, the elements of Smart technology are presented as a resource for teaching and learning.
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Literature Review

Knowledge Explosion

For centuries, knowledge has doubled at a rather steady rate; a doubling rate roughly occurs once every century. Beginning in around 1900 the rate of knowledge began to double at an ever increasingly fast rate (Buckminster, 1981). Now, that rate is so foreshortened that it can be described as exponential. With the invention of personal computers, the Internet, and mobile devices, the growth beginning in the 1980's has jumped by approximately 900% (Buckminster, 1981). See Figure 1 for a dramatization of the growth of information from 1600 to 2050, which demonstrates the exponential growth. There appears to be no immediate end to the explosion of information. Some project this doubling rate to occur every 12 hours at some point relatively soon. This ever-increasing rate of doubling produces a problem for teachers and students: How to transform this vast quantity of data into knowledge? One way is through Smart technology that combines visual and the aural input to reduce cognitive load and make learning more efficient and more effective.

Figure 1.

A demonstration of the rapid growth of information from 1600 to 2050. Data obtained, in part, from Schilling (2013)

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