Improving Road Safety for Driver Malaise and Sleepiness Behind the Wheel Using Vehicular Cloud Computing and Body Area Networks

Improving Road Safety for Driver Malaise and Sleepiness Behind the Wheel Using Vehicular Cloud Computing and Body Area Networks

Meriem Benadda (University Oran 1, Algeria) and Ghalem Belalem (University Oran 1, Algeria)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSSCI.2020100102
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Abstract

Malaise and sleepiness behind the wheel are considered to be the leading causes of fatal highway accidents. With the body area networks (BANs), a continuous health monitoring of a driver can be performed without any constraint on his/her normal daily life activities. Many of the systems proposed in the literature are intended to prevent traffic accidents but without treating this kind of cause because difficult to highlight in an accident. This paper proposes “HAaaS,” a new vehicular cloud computing service based on BANs to detect, monitor, and manage driver malaise and provide a cooperation support for the driver rescue. The objective is to reduce the number of accidents, the material and human damage as the time and fuel lost in traffic jams. The proposed service has been validated by simulating real-world highway scenarios extracted from Oran city in Algeria. The results show that the service is efficient at a significant rate.
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Introduction

Since their appearance, VANets (Vehicular Area Networks) caught the attention of research communities, major automakers and governments because of their potential applications and their specific characteristics. The VANets research results began with vehicle awareness of collision avoidance to Internet access and then expanded to vehicular multimedia communications. In addition, the high computing, communication, and storage resources of the vehicle are a fertile ground for deploying these applications in the near future. Nevertheless, the resources on board vehicles are for the most part underutilized. The introduction of the new hybrid technology known as Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) (Whaiduzzaman, Sookhak, Gani, & Buyya, 2014) has had a great impact on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) by utilizing underused vehicle resources such as GPS (Global Positioning System), storage, Internet, and computing power to make instant decisions and share information on the Cloud. At the same time, the proliferation of the automotive industry has made it possible to design more and more equipped vehicles even for everyday use vehicles. These latter include relatively more communication systems such as embedded computing devices, storage and computing power, GPS, etc. to provide an ITS. Thereby, by combining VCC technology and these new vehicles, we can obtain a state-of-the-art system that can solve most of the road safety and driver well-being problems.

Motivator Elements

Traffic accidents are considered to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Every year more than 1.25 million people die in road traffic accidents and 20 to 50 million more are injured, sometimes even become disabled as a result of their injuries, according to the World Health Organization (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020). These accidents result in considerable economic losses for those who are victims, their families and the countries as a whole. In 2017, and in the United States only, there was a loss of $ 166 billion (160 in 2014) with 8.8 billion lost hours(6.9 in 2014) and lost 3.3 billion gallons (3.1 in 2014) of wasted gasoline due to traffic congestion (Schrank, Eisele, Lomax, & Bak, 2019). More seriously, these numbers will increase by about 65% over the next 20 years if there is no new commitment to prevention according to projections made within the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020).

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