Innovation Attributes of F2F Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning in Teaching Reading Skills

Innovation Attributes of F2F Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning in Teaching Reading Skills

Amr Abdullatif Yassin (Ibb University, Yemen), Norizan Abdul Razak (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia) and Tg Nor Rizan Tg Mohamad Maasum (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJWLTT.20220501.oa4
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This study aimed at investigating the innovation attributes of face-to-face Computer Assisted Cooperative Learning (CACL). It employed a mixed method design as the data were collected through a survey and semi-structured interviews. The findings showed that face to face CACL has a high degree of adoption in higher education institutes to teach EFL/ESL learners. Also, the regression analysis showed that the five factors are strong predictors of innovation adoption with complexity has the highest significance, followed by compatibility, relative advantage, observability and trialability respectively. The study found that accessibility is an emerging innovation attribute which increases the adoption of any innovation practice. The paper concluded that the human element of face-to-face cooperative learning increases the adoption of CACL, and that relative advantage has influence on the other innovation attributes. The study recommends using face-to-face CACL in teaching EFL/ESL learners, and using accessibility as an innovation attribute.
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The rapid development of technology has greatly influenced the field of language teaching and learning. It has become essential for teachers and educational institutions to utilize technology, especially in the field of language teaching and learning as it is of great benefit to students (Yusuf, 2005; Gomez, Wu, Passerini & Bieber, 2007; Ntemana & Olatokun, 2012; Grgurovic, 2014). One of the main advantages of technology is making the process of learning student-centred instead of teacher-centred (Greer & Mott, 2009; Razak, Yassin & Maasum, 2020).

One of the methods that proved to be effective in teaching EFL/ESL students is computer assisted cooperative learning (CACL) (AbuSeileek, 2007; 2012; Sioofy & Ahangari, 2013; Yoshida, Tani, Uchida, Masui & Nakayama, 2014). Nevertheless, using technology inside the classroom is not always fruitful for the students (Gobbo & Girardi, 2001), which necessitates using cooperative learning with CALL since cooperative learning makes the students more active and responsible for their learning (Yassin, Razak & Maasum, 2018). Taking into consideration CACL, there is a need to focus on CALL design and on the process of teaching which includes face-to-face cooperative learning activities. This requires providing the students with their needs in terms of the skills to be studied, and it is vital to plan the classes carefully so that it becomes face-to-face CACL. Thus, there is a need to focus on theory and practice from the stage of CALL design to the phase of teaching inside the classroom. After all, this requires evaluation for this innovative teaching method in order to provide implications for teachers and higher education institutions about the weaknesses and strengths of using face-to-face CACL. Investigating the innovation attributes of face-to-face CACL guides educators and researchers in adopting any new teaching method, or teachers can modify the process in order to overcome the limitations found in previous literature.

In addition, what makes this study, and similar studies, significant is that the use of technology in the field of education in developing countries is facing different challenges, including “a systems approach to learning, awareness of and attitudes toward ICTs, administrative and technical support, staff development, personal ownership of technologies, inadequate funds, and the transforming process in higher education.” (Ntemana & Olatokun, 2012: 181). Therefore, investigating the adoption rate from the side of the students will help in the adoption decision from the side of the teachers and educational institutions for new teaching practices.

Previous studies have shown that interaction through computer has a positive influence on the process of learning (Oakley, Felder, Brent, & Elhajj, 2004; Stahl, Koschmann & Suthers, 2006; Medina & Suthers, 2008; Kwon, Liu, & Johnson, 2014). However, previous studies did not shed light on the integration of CALL and face-to-face cooperative learning. This study changed the online interaction to face-to-face CACL. This application is considered an innovative method of teaching, at least for the learners participated in this study. Surely, investigating the innovation attributes of CACL might motivate others to replicate the same method in different contexts. In addition, the investigation of the innovation attributes will help to get an idea if the implementation of face-to-face CACL is suitable for learners in terms of their skills and needs, and if such teaching method is perceived to be easy or complex from the side of the learners beside other related aspects. The findings of the study will highlight the advantages and limitations, if any, of face-to-face CACL, which will guide teachers and educational institutions in terms of the adoptability of this teaching method. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the innovation attributes of face-to-face CACL, and it aims at answering the following question:

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