Internet of Things: A Survey of Architecture, Requirements and Applications

Internet of Things: A Survey of Architecture, Requirements and Applications

Mahantesh N. Birje (Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, India), Arun A. Kumbi (SKSVMACET, Laxmeshwar, India) and Ashok V. Sutagundar (Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJHIoT.2017070104
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This article describes how the Internet of Things (IoT) enables interaction and integration of real world things or objects—such as cars, electronic devices, homes, etc.—using various inter-operable communication protocols. This leads to a digital society of billions of devices that can sense, process, share, track, shop, chat and work in cooperative manner. There exist many challenges in the realization of IoT based distributed systems. This article intends to introduce various aspects of IoT such as views/visions, Architecture and protocols of IoT, communication technology, general requirements and various application domains. This article intends to disseminate the state-of-the-art multi-fold information on IoT to researchers, academicians, and student community.
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1. Introduction

The Internet has very systematic growth over the history right from its beginning. Figure 1 shows its growth over the period leading to the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a trendy expression of today's innovation. In the late 1960s, communication was made conceivable through PC system. In the mid of 1980 TCP/IP protocol was introduced, business utilization of web begun in late 1980. In 1991 World Wide Web (WWW) introduced which made the internet more mainstream and fortified the fast development; at that point, portable things were associated with the Internet and shaped the portable web (Kumar & Patel, 2014; Whitmore et al., 2014; Suruthi & Nivetha, 2016).

Figure 1.

Emergence of IoT from past internet


Kevin Ashton firstly coined the word IoT in 1999. He told IoT as a remarkable technique associated with RFID technology. Till recent years many researchers tried to clarify the definition of the IoT. IoT has been defined differently in various papers as follows in Table 1.

Table 1.
Definitions of IoT
(Thakare and Patil, 2016)A globe in which different physical objects are integrated into huge information network system, in turn these physical objects can play role as an active member in business system.
(Whitmore et al., 2014)The IoT is a standard, which will facilitate the communication of objects with each other, where every object can be outfitted with identifying, sensing, networking and dispensation capabilities, which will help to provide some set of services over the internet to achieve some goal.
(Fuqaha et al., 2015)IoT is a model, in which it facilitates the physical objects to see, listen, sense and carry out jobs by connecting them together, to distribute information and to synchronize them.

IoT is the expansion of current internet which is evolved to associate every single thing which exists in this real world (Aghaei & Ali, 2012). Imagine each of the elements related to each other in regular life. In such situation, the person can monitor his connected things from anyplace, at any time and from any system (Singh & Tripathi, 2014).

Furthermore, the IoT is expected to have importance on industry and household applications to offer a quality of life and provide a contribution to the economy of the world. For example, smart homes will facilitate their inhabitants to automatically manage climate control systems, TVs, and other household appliances. To assist this, trending technologies, innovations, and service applications require growing up uniformly to satisfy market demands and customer necessities. Further, devices request to be upgraded to fit user needs regarding accessibility everywhere. Also, there is a requirement of new protocols for providing communication facility and compatibility between various objects (Fuqaha et al., 2015; Agarwal et al., 2012). It is expected that by the end of 2022 around 212 billion entities deployed globally (Salem & Suarez, 2016; Fuqaha et al., 2015). Figure 2 shows the possible share of IoT applications by 2020 based on Gartner report.

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