Investigating Heat Sink Properties for an Efficient Construction of Energy Generating Cook Stove for Rural Settlers

Investigating Heat Sink Properties for an Efficient Construction of Energy Generating Cook Stove for Rural Settlers

M.E. Emetere (Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria & Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa), O.D. Okonkwo (Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria) and S. Jack-Quincy (Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMMME.2018070102

Abstract

This article describes how the actualization of clean-burning, efficient cook stoves had been achieved. However, the research on energy generating cook-stoves is far from resolved. The construction of the energy generating cook-stove depends mainly on the heat sink and thermoelectric converter. In this article, the material properties of the heat sink were advanced. Due to the drive for waste-to-wealth initiative, the authors chose four samples of heat sinks from an electronic waste dumpsite. An energy generating cook-stove was constructed and further experimentation was carried out to determine the slew rate, heat flow rate, power, voltage and temperature of each heat sink. Beyond the accomplishment of the experimentation, it was observed that the collapse or growth of the limiting boundaries formed by the constituents of steel determines the microstructural tendencies, mechanical properties, and alloy chemistry of the heat sink. Based on the objective of turning waste-to-wealth, only one sample was recommended for future research.
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Introduction

More than half of the world’s population relies on biomass combustion in order to fulfill domestic cooking needs. The energy needs in the rural community in developing countries is low. Hence, the need to provide a smart, simple source of energy is salient. Several research works have been carried on the energy needs of the rural communities. For example, the use, efficiency and optimization of the photovoltaic module has been carried out (Emetere et al., 2016); the use of different biodiesel products was also carried out (Emetere et al., 2017 a&b); the adoption of free energy generators was also investigated for maximum use in the rural area (Emetere et al., 2016); and the viability of the dye solar cells were investigated (Uno et al., 2015). Biomass cook stoves are known in the rural communities of developing countries. Hence, it is user friendly. However, the question on durability and pollution that emanates from the biomass cook-stove is currently a major challenge. Biomass normally takes different sorts: solid wood, vegetation, grilling with charcoal, in addition to dung (Unknown, 2016). The actual reliance on biomass, especially solid wood, in cook stoves has extreme influences on the local woods and the ecosystems. This ultimately leads to deforestation and erosion.

Cook stove emits significant amounts of carbon monoxide (Bailis et al., 2003). The danger of the traditional cook stove is its influence on the indoor ambient temperature and pollution which leads to the deaths of over one million people annually (WHO, 2009). This is because the burnt biomass gives off a mixture of gases along with suspended contaminants (Emetere et al., 2016; Emetere 2016). The mixture of gases may include gas-phase hydrocarbons as well as carcinogenic compounds e.g. benzene, 1, 3-butidiene, styrene etc. (Smith et al., (2004). Scientists have proven that the smoke from the traditional cook-stove is almost equivalent to tobacco smokers. Hence, indoor pollution from cookstove may lead to respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, blood vessels strain, cataracts as well as loss of sight (WHO, 2009).

Recent biomass cookstove construction have now resolved issues on indoor pollution. The current drive is the generating energy from biomass cook-stove which is of immense importance to rural dwellers. The initial idea of thermoelectric generator (TEG) incorporated cook-stove was experimented by Killander and Bass (1996). The main challenge of the energy generating biomass cook-stove is the heat sink and thermoelectric converter. The focus of this study is to examine the available heat sink gotten from a huge waste site. The motive is to basically seek of producing low-cost biomass cookstove from waste material. Few scientists have embarked on same kind of project in the past (Bhutta et al., 2011). The main focus of this paper is the mechanical properties of the thermal-electric conversion unit i.e. heat sink.

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