K-Centers Clustering Protocol over Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

K-Centers Clustering Protocol over Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Qing Yan Xie (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA), Yizong Cheng (Department of EECS, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA) and Qing-An Zeng (North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/IJITN.2014100105
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Abstract

This paper introduces a K-Centers clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Energy consumption is an important issue for wireless sensor networks, and sensor nodes consume most of their energy with data delivery. The energy needed to transmit data is proportional to the distance between sensor nodes and either cluster heads or a base station. Clustering is an efficient technique for saving energy and extending network life. The authors' protocol uses a K-centers clustering algorithm to alter the network, topology and establish data routing. The result is k cluster heads which accommodate the distribution of sensor nodes and achieve minimum maximum intra-cluster distances. Their simulations show that their algorithm will outperform K-Means under many but not all conditions. The authors' always produce better minimum maximum intra-cluster distances compared to K-means.
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2. Review Of Literature

There are many algorithms and protocols that have been proposed in the past few years to save energy and extend the lifetime of WSNs. A brief review of important clustering protocols follows.

One important protocol is Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) (Heinzelman, Chandrakasan, & Balakrishnan, 2000), which has inspired many follow-on protocols. LEACH’s operation involves many iterations. There are two stages in each iteration, a setup stage and a steady-state stage. In the setup stage, LEACH chooses sensor nodes randomly to be Cluster Heads (CHs), then it rotates CHs’ roles during each iteration to distribute energy consumption evenly among all sensor nodes. In the steady-state stage, LEACH uses a TDMA/CDMA schedule and data are transmitted from sensor nodes to CHs, and then from CHs to the BS.

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