Knowledge Management & It's Origin, Success Factors, Planning, Tools, Applications, Barriers and Enablers: A Review

Knowledge Management & It's Origin, Success Factors, Planning, Tools, Applications, Barriers and Enablers: A Review

Animesh Agrawal (NIT RAIPUR, Raipur, India) and Suraj Kumar Mukti (NIT RAIPUR, Raipur, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 40
DOI: 10.4018/IJKM.2020010103
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Over of the past several years, there have been rigorous discussions about the significance of knowledge management (KM) within the organization and the society. The management of knowledge is endorsed as a significant and essential factor for organizational existence and maintenance of ambitious strength. This article provides an in-depth knowledge of factors affecting KM. Literatures from 1992 to 2018 are covered in this article, 169 research papers have been explored which are related to classification of knowledge, factors affecting KM, KM tools and its planning & application. Various frameworks related to the successful implementation of KM and KM implementation tools proposed by previous authors are presented in this research article. KM is defined, classification of KM is presented, factors affecting KM are shown and its implementation strategies & tools are elucidated in available literatures in discrete manner.
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1. Introduction

In the mid of 1980s, the organizations started to appreciate & focus on an individual’s knowledge and importance of their knowledge. In this era, organizations emphasized product quality, quality & facilities, receptiveness of products, using appropriate placement of an individual’s knowledge. Many of the literature has defined the KM but Davenport (1994) postulated KM as “the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge” (Davenport, 1994). Later Duhon (1998) provided another definition: “KM is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing all of an enterprise's information assets” (Duhon, 1998). According to Gloet and Terziovski (2004), KM is the interpretation of experience and how to access that knowledge and proficiency, that produce new competencies, empower superior routine, boost innovation, and increase customer satisfaction. This study also described the KM act as an umbrella for a variety of interconnecting terms, such as knowledge conception, knowledge assessment, and metrics, knowledge aligning and indexing, knowledge conveyance, storing and circulation and knowledge allocation (Gloet & Terziovski, 2004). Jennex and Olfman (2005) proposed a framework estimating knowledge management system success models. The article also discussed the knowledge management system success models based on Delone and McLean (2003). By this research a researcher, the practitioner can validate knowledge management system success models which affect knowledge management system success rate. The article identifies the knowledge management system success factors from previous studies, projects. (Jennex & Olfman, 2005).

KM has a positive impact on any organization. By application of KM the organization can reach a higher level. The knowledge can be broadly classified into two categories, first tacit knowledge, and second Explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is difficult to express in the form of language, symbol. Tacit knowledge can be defined as the data which cannot be stored or expressed in the form of any written material and tacit to explicit knowledge transfer is not possible. Only the tacit to tacit knowledge can be transferred (Joia & Lemos, 2010). Explicit knowledge can be stored as numbered, data and symbols and can be transmitted within the organizations. Explicit knowledge is what written in the paper and explicit to the explicit transfer of the knowledge is only possible.

This paper has been arranged in section wise, in section 1 introduction of KM have been discussed. In section 2 the origins of the KM have been elucidated, which covers, the progress and early stages of KM? Where it comes from? What is the present scenario of KM? In section 3 classification of knowledge has been discussed and shown how tacit knowledge is different from explicit knowledge, and how the relationship can be stabilized between tacit and explicit knowledge. How this knowledge can be used for improving the performance of the organizations and how the efficiency of the organization can be increased. In section 4 different factors have been identified by the previous authors, which affect the KM implementation in an organization. Section 5 deals with the role of KM for different managerial planning, tools, and applications. In this section different planning related to KM, tools supporting for enhancing the KM capabilities and different application of KM have been discussed. Section 6 discusses the KM enablers. Section 7 deals with the barriers affecting the implementation of KM in organizations. The result shows that the use of KM is very important for the enhancement of any organization. Section 8 discussed the limitation of the study and the future scope of the presented work. Complete knowledge of these eight sections is needed to implement KM successfully in an organization. In-depth study of these sections provides step by step information to industries who are seeking to implement KM successfully.

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