Knowledge Management Models: A Summative Review

Knowledge Management Models: A Summative Review

Dana Indra Sensuse (Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia) and Elin Cahyaningsih (Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/IJISSS.2018010105

Abstract

Knowledge and knowledge management started to be an option of organizational strategic step for reach organizational objectives and goals. Knowledge management believed to resolve organizational problem in managing their organizational and individual knowledge. Implementation of knowledge management (KM) has received increased interests. This paper aims to discuss KM models based on KM related definitions, concepts, functions, activities and approaches. Literatures on knowledge management models were collected from a number of sources. Each document then was analyzed and categorized in a certain group. The study shows that there are four categories of KM models i.e.: process, strategy, knowledge type, and maturity based knowledge management models.
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Introduction

Knowledge and knowledge management (KM) have become prominent issues in organizational development and management. Knowledge as intangible asset of an organization drives organizational enhancement in every objective focus. Unconsciously, organizational knowledge continues to grow together with individual and organizational experiences.

Organizational knowledge can be divided into tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is in individual mind, difficult to be articulated. Explicit knowledge has been articulated into memo, letter, guidebook, manual book and reference (Bercerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2004; Dalkir, 2005). KM is known as a new concept to manage, develop and retain organizational knowledge. KM can prevent losing of organizational knowledge, by combining data, information and knowledge (Dalkir, 2005). Finally, (Rao, Com, Phil, & Ph, 2012) say that KM involves a set of management activities that develop, transfer, transmit, store and apply knowledge in order to support decision making for all organization members to reach organizational effectiveness and efficiency.

In line with the KM theory, many researchers discuss KM models and their purposes for supporting KM implementation in organizations in different perspectives. KM models as mentioned in some research focus on creating new organizational knowledge from individual knowledge through some transformation process was describes in NONAKA and TAKEUCHI KM model, modified Ex-ex Model MARCH and BONTIS, DEMAREST’S KM model, and MCLNERNEY KM model (Chitto, Nowbutsing, & R.Ramchurn, 2010; Cristea & Capatina, 2009; Curado & Bontis, 2011; Dalkir, 2005; Demarest, 1997; Haslinda & Sarinah, 2009; Kasimu, A, & A, 2012). While, other discussed that KM models focus in managing process of knowledge in organization. The process can be such activities like collection, transfer, transform, storing, simulation and reuse which can be used for decision making, increase product, and organizational competitive advantages to achieve customer satisfaction. The models are CHOO KM model, ICAS of KM, KOGUS and ZANDER’S KM model, holistic view of KM model, activity based and map based KM model, KM process model ALAVI, Model of KM and the N-form corporation (Chitto et al., 2010; Cristea & Capatina, 2009; Dalkir, 2005; Haslinda & Sarinah, 2009; Hedlund, 1994; Kasimu et al., 2012; Yang, Zheng, & Viere, 2009; Zack & Hall, 2002). The previous research also determines KM models which focused in mapping and classify the organizational knowledge based on the knowledge resources and the purpose of knowledge as organizational asset. The models are WIIG model, BOISOT I-Space KM model and Skandia intellectual capital model of KM (Chitto et al., 2010; Cristea & Capatina, 2009; Curado & Bontis, 2011; Dalkir, 2005; Haslinda & Sarinah, 2009). Hence, some other researcher discussed KM models that focus in developing the organizational strategy which align with knowledge management strategy in each organization. Some of the models are IMPAKT model, EMBRAPA’s KM model, KM model in Chinese government and knowledge SWOT analysis (Duan, Wang, & Zhang, 2002; Kasimu et al., 2012; Neto & Vieira, 2010; Zack & Hall, 2002). The last KM model is focus in level of KM maturity is FRID’s KM model (Chitto et al., 2010; Haslinda & Sarinah, 2009).

The objectives of this research are to answer the research question bellow:

What kinds of the existing KM models based on their objectives, concept and element of the model?

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