3D Maps in Mobile Devices: Pathway Analysis for Interactive Navigation Aid

3D Maps in Mobile Devices: Pathway Analysis for Interactive Navigation Aid

Teddy Mantoro (Department of Informatics, Advanced Informatics School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Adamu I. Abubakar (Department of Information System, KICT, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) and Media A. Ayu (Department of Information System, KICT, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/jmcmc.2013070106
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Abstract

Pathway analysis provided by current 3D maps in mobile devices that are intended for an interactive navigation aid, is simulated for what-if experiments against task and functional analysis, based on the problems faced from both technical and user-practices views. The aim of a navigation aid, in general, is to provide an optimal route from the current position to the destination. Unfortunately, the problem of most mobile device’s GPS signal accuracy and the display of pathways on 3D maps in the small screen of mobile devices affects the pathway architectural design from generating accurate initial positions to destinations. This paper presents both conceptual and experimental analysis of pathway determination designed for 3D maps in mobile devices for an interactive navigation aid, which is going to be added to an existing individual cognitive map. The analytical outcomes are aimed at providing how environmental conditions come to be detected and how problems are resolved in helping people to navigate in unfamiliar locations by having positions and paths corrected to a reasonable degree of accuracy in order to overcome the problems of generating in-accurate locations and the weaknesses of conventional 2D maps, which requires users to interpret its various symbols and legends. Bent functions and fuzzy logic type 2 are used for simulating signal deviations from the precise values and Voronoi diagram/Delaunay triangulation are used for establishing experimental paths and locations. Finally, this technique will contribute to a well-defined positioning and pathway establishment of 3D maps in mobile devices for navigation aid.
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2. 3D Maps In Mobile Devices

3D representations for navigation aid in mobile devices over a GSM network were experimented in Raposo et al. (1997) as one of the earliest attempts at the development of such a system. Later, the practical implementation by Rakkolainen et al. (1998) was seen to face a measure drawback where its first field experiments were confined to pre-rendered images on a static web page on a laptop computer, not on a mobile device, during their development of 3D City Info Project that was primarily meant to create mobile interactive 3D maps and visualize real-time GPS data. Furthermore, the frame rate with a Cortona CR VRML browser was one frame for every 8 seconds (0.125fps), with severe problems in running Java 2. However, the possibility of rendering large detailed 3D cities in mobile devices at interactive rates over 5 frames per second (without hardware acceleration) and over 30 frames per second with 3D hardware acceleration was presented in the m-LOMA project developed by Nurminen, A. (2006). Hence, the technology stands firm and more of such system started appearing.

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