MCDM Approach for Mitigation of Flooding Risks in Odisha (India) Based on Information Retrieval

MCDM Approach for Mitigation of Flooding Risks in Odisha (India) Based on Information Retrieval

Debesh Mishra (KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India) and Suchismita Satapathy (KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCINI.2020040105

Abstract

Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) provides a suitable platform for groups as well as promotion of the participants' role in decision processes. This also enables the development of real participatory processes essential for the successful implementation and sustainable flood management programs. The present study contributes by applying two MCDM approaches for weighting the criteria related to the environmental impacts of flooding. Moreover, an attempt was made in this study by an extensive review of literature, and consultations with experts to identify the environmental impacts of flooding in Odisha State (India). Then, the Best Worst Method (BWM) followed by the Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) method was used to rank the environmental impacts which were considered as the risk factors. The result of this study will be useful to the governance system for an effective and proper planning, and implementation of flood mitigation projects.
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Introduction

In India, the climate of Odisha State is tropical which is characterized by high humidity, high temperature, medium to high rainfall, and short and mild winter. The normal rainfall in Odisha is 1451.2 mm, while the actual rainfall usually varies in different districts. During the period from June to September, about 84% of rainfall occurs. The distribution of rainfall during the monsoon period is highly uneven and unpredictable, although the rainfall quantum is quite high. Consequently, flood, drought, and cyclone of varying intensity occur frequently affecting adversely the social, economic as well as environmental scenario of the State. Flooding has been the most frequent visitor among the natural calamities in Odisha, and in most of the years the entire coastal line of 482 km is frequently exposed to flood and water logging. The heavy rain falls on the hills and the flood water from the neighboring regions of Odisha contribute flooding in coastal and deltaic areas. The flood is mostly aggravated because of high degree of siltation, erosion of soils, embankments breaching, and tidal flow of sea restricting disposal of flooded water. The flood water is normally carried to the sea by the major rivers such as Rusikulya, Brahmani, Subarnarekha, Vansadhara, Mahanadi, and their branches. Sometimes the cyclonic wind along with heavy rain falls and tidal flows also causes flooding in coastal areas damaging life & properties of habitats, and also affecting crop fields’ & food security. The coastal districts of Odisha, prone to floods and requiring an effective approach for its mitigation are Balasore, Bhadrak, Kendrapara, Jagatsingpur, Puri, and Ganjam, respectively. Thus, there is a need to have proper flood risk reduction plans for the entire State, through adequate assessment of the critical & adverse impacts of flooding and prioritizing them based on the risk levels.

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