Modern Research Methodologies for the Determination of the Heavy Metals Accumulation in the Soil

Modern Research Methodologies for the Determination of the Heavy Metals Accumulation in the Soil

Maria Popa (International Centre of Environmental Protection and Food Quality Control, University “1 Decembrie 1918” Alba Iulia, Alba Iulia, Romania) and Dorin Popa (International Centre of Environmental Protection and Food Quality Control, University “1 Decembrie 1918” Alba Iulia, Alba Iulia, Romania)
DOI: 10.4018/IJAEIS.2017010106
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Abstract

The present paper approaches a usual problem in the industrialised area, respectively Zlatna Area in Romania. The aim of this research is to establish the heavy metal soil contamination degree using modern research methods namely spectrometric and stripping methods. The results pointed out very high exceeding values, especially in the case of lead and copper, in the studied area. Moreover, the mobility and the availability of heavy metals decreases when pH increases. Findings suggest that the use of modern technologies have good results regarding the determination of the heavy metals in the soil.
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Experimental Part

The soil samples were gathered from different depths depending on the vegetation of the respective soil: 0-20 cm for arable land and grass, 20-40 cm for orchards and vineyards.

For each material studied, we used the specific methods mentioned in our literature and complied with the experimental parameters and requirements of our study procedures (Popa, 2003).

We gave special attention to calibration. In order to determine metallic cations found in soil and vegetation samples by using atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods, we used the standards provided by AnalytikJena (which came with the equipment). Through proper dilution, we arrived at the optimum concentration (100 ppb) for GFAAS and 100 ppm for FAAS (see Table 1).

Table 1.
Methods used for the analysis of soil heavy metal contamination
METHOD OF ANALYSISEQUIPMENT USEDMEASURED ELEMENTSSample preparing methods
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry applied to soil samplesAAS vario2 FL, AAS vario5 GF, GermanyCu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+Wet mineralization
Accumulation – dissolution methods, applied to soil samplesPTEA-Wagtech Computerized Electrochemical SystemBAS 100W;Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+Wet mineralization
Titrimetry, applied to soil samplesAutomatic burette SCHELLBACH, Germanyorganic C (humus)Wet oxidation
Colorimetry, applied to soil samplesSPEKOLL UV-VIS, Analytik Jena, GermanyPhosphorus (P)Ammonium lactate acetate extraction
Flame photometry, applied to soil samplesFLAMFO 4, AnalytikJena, GermanyPotassium (K)Ammonium lactate acetate extraction
Instrumental pH determination, applied to soil samplesINNOLAB, GermanypHIn watery suspension

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