New Routing Technique to Enhance Energy Efficiency and Maximize Lifetime of the Network in WSNs

New Routing Technique to Enhance Energy Efficiency and Maximize Lifetime of the Network in WSNs

Nezha El Idrissi (Department of Communication Systems, National Institute of Post and Telecommunications (INPT), Rabat, Morocco), Abdellah Najid (Department of Communication Systems, National Institute of Post and Telecommunications (INPT), Rabat, Morocco) and Hassan El Alami (Department of Communication Systems, National Institute of Post and Telecommunications (INPT), Rabat, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/IJWNBT.2020070105

Abstract

Energy conservation plays a role important in wireless sensor network (WSN) design. The technique of clustering is one of the approaches to save energy of WSNs; several protocols based on the clustering technique are proposed in the context of energy conservation and maximization of network lifetime. This article proposed a new routing technique to maximize the network lifetime and enhance energy efficiency in WSNs, namely optimal selection of cluster head in the grid (OSCH-Gi). This technique divides the network area into a clustered grid. Each clustered grid has a cluster head (CH) it has been chosen based on the residual energy and distance to the base station of each node. Simulation results indicate that the proposed technique is more effective than other clustering algorithms in terms of the network lifetime and energy consumption.
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Several routing protocols have been proposed for WSNs. The main purpose of these protocols is to efficiently collect the data with less resource consumption, maximizing the network lifetime.

LEACH is one of the most popular routing protocols for WSNs. It is a hierarchical protocol, in which the node details are handled by (Wendi B, Anantha P, & Balakrishnan, 2002). The CHS gathers the data and compresses them and forwards it to the base station (BS). Every node uses the stochastic algorithm to find out the CH. This can be clearly illustrated in Figure 1 which shows the architecture of the standard LEACH Protocol. During the setup phase, each node creates a random number between 0 and 1. If the random number is smaller than the threshold value, then the node becomes a CH for the present round. The threshold value is calculated based on the following equation:

IJWNBT.2020070105.m01
(1)

Here, ‘p’ is the desired percentage of CH, ‘r’ denotes the count of the present round, and G is the group of sensor nodes that are not CHs in the previous 1/p rounds. The schematic structure of the proposed LEACH Protocol is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Schematic structure of the LEACH protocol

IJWNBT.2020070105.f01

The drawbacks of this protocol are as follows:

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