One Pot Synthesis of CoTiO3-TiO2 Composite Nanofibers and its Application in Dye Degradation

One Pot Synthesis of CoTiO3-TiO2 Composite Nanofibers and its Application in Dye Degradation

M. Shamshi Hassan (Department of Chemistry, Albaha University, Saudi Arabia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCCE.2019070105
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CoTiO3-TiO2 composite nanofibrous photocatalysts were synthesized by means of the one-step electrospinning method. The samples were characterized by a range of different methods (XRD, SEM, EPMA, FT-IR, UV-DRS, and TEM). Photocatalytic activity was performed for the degradation of rhodamine 6G under visible light. The results showed that CoTiO3-TiO2 composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized. The average sizes of the diameters of the composite nanofibers were found to be 300 to 400 nm. The UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the CoTiO3-TiO2 composite showed an absorption wavelength, in the visible light region, having a band gap energy value of 2.21 eV. The CoTiO3-TiO2 composite showed higher photocatalytic efficiency than that of pristine TiO2; which can be attributed to the heterojunctional interaction between CoTiO3 and TiO2.
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Water pollution is a matter of great concern in society. Photocatalysts are applied in order to degrade harmful organic pollutants into non-toxic compounds in water (Zhang et al., 2012). TiO2 is one of the best-known photocatalysts so far. However, TiO2 has a notable limitation in that its energy band falls in the ultraviolet zone, which makes it unsuitable to be applied for use in photodegradation under visible light. A lot of effort has been done in this regard in order to extend its activity in the visible region, by making various modifications. Scientists have shown immense curiosity in developing the modified titania; having its wavelength absorption in visible light region. One of the usual procedures is the doping of TiO2 with elements like carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen; etc. (Chen, Jiang, Geng, Wang, & Yang, 2007; Guan et al., 2019; Ida et al., 2019; Luna, Gatica, Vidal, & Mosquera, 2019; Mahy et al., 2019; Park, Kim, & Bard, 2006; Pylnev & Wong, 2019; Sheydaei, Zangouei, & Vatanpour, 2019; Srisasiwimon, Chuangchote, Laosiripojana, & Sagawa, 2018; Tasbihi et al., 2019; Yoon et al., 2018). An alternative method is to combine TiO2 with a semiconductor having a small bandwidth (Abdi, Yahyanezhad, Sakhaie, Vossoughi, & Alemzadeh, 2019; Chanhom, Charoenlap, Manipuntee, & Insin, 2019; Hendrix, Lazaro, Yu, & Brouwers, 2019; Ilieva, Nakova, & Tsakova, 2012; Jiang et al., 2018; Mahieu, Puzenat, Geantet, Cardenas, & Afanasiev, 2019; Mao et al., 2017; Ouyang, Chang, & Li, 2012; Ratova, Tosheva, Kelly, & Ohtani, 2019). By joining two semiconductors, a new photocatalytic material with a modified band gap can be developed, which will not merely lengthen the absorption of light to the visible spectrum but will, as well, put a check on the fast merging of electrons or holes during photoactivity.

Metal titanates like nickel titanate, cobalt titanate, ferrite titanate, zinc titanate, copper titanate, and lead titanate are famous functional materials which possess an assortment of uses. The titanate perovskites are the best recommended materials for use in photodegradation. Generally, titanate perovskites having band energy of (>3.0 eV) show photocatalytic activity under UV (ultraviolet) light (Ke, Cheng, Wang, Wang, & Pan, 2014; Zhu, Anzai, Yamamoto, & Yoshida, 2019). By doping the metal titanates, their wavelength can be modified from the UV to the visible light absorption range. CoTiO3 is an ABO3-type perovskite oxide, having a narrow band gap semiconductor. Cobalt titanate (CoTiO3) has been used in various applications such as Li-ion batteries (Jiang et al., 2014), gas sensors (Chuang et al., 2010), magnetic recorders (Toubal, Bensaha, & Yakuphanoglu, 2017) and photocatalysts (Wang, Guo, Wang, & Li, 2016). Cobalt titanate possesses a band width the in visible range (Eg = 2.28 eV). Currently, CoTiO3 has been used as a catalyst under visible light (Singh et al., 2019). In the last few years, one-dimensional nanomaterials have gotten a tremendous response because of their unique size and shape. Developing materials with 1D (one-dimensional) morphology and nano-size range will not only increase their surface area but will also improve their properties. Therefore, it is believed that 1D nano-structures will exhibit superior thermal, optical, or electrical properties as compared to their nanoparticle counterparts (Choi, Kim, Lim, & Park, 2010; Pan et al., 2012).

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