Parametric Analysis of Different Grades of Steel Materials Used in Plastic Industries through Die Sinking EDM Process

Parametric Analysis of Different Grades of Steel Materials Used in Plastic Industries through Die Sinking EDM Process

Goutam Kumar Bose (Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, India) and Pritam Pain (Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMFMP.2016010104
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In the present research work four different work materials viz. EN24, D2, H13, P20 which are commonly use in plastic industries are considered for machining applying EDM process. Four different control parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, gap current, and Spark gap are considered to study the effect on the performance of responses like material removal rate, surface roughness and overcut using a square shape copper tool with lateral flushing. A well design experimental plan is used to reduce the total number of experiment following L9 orthogonal array. Based on Taguchi methodology the significant process parameters affecting the responses are identified applying ANOVA for each material. The effect of the responses with respect to the four control parameters for the four different work materials is compared through linear graphs. A well-known Grey relational analysis is carried out where the weights are calculated using entropy method to full fill the multi criteria decision making process.
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1. Introduction

As the advanced materials are hard and have high strength, therefore machining them applying conventional techniques is rather difficult. To overcome this condition, nowadays the non-traditional techniques are used in modern manufacturing environment. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is one such non-traditional machining process where material removal takes place by controlled erosion of electrically conducting material. The process is based on removing the material from the work piece by rapid and repetitive electric spark between the work piece and tool. The cathode tool and the anode work piece are separated by a dielectric fluid. As the tool and the work piece does not make direct contact during machining, so the machining stress, chatter and vibration do not occur. So this process can be used in machining of alloys having low machinability and high temperature strength resistance. It is also used to produce jobs having complex profiles and finish in aerospace, automotive industry and various types of dies and moulds in plastic industries. A successful optimization of process parameter is one of the significant aspect which is considered in the majority of non-traditional machining processes and especially in electric discharge machining process. The major factors influencing EDM process are Pulse on time (POT), Pulse off time (POF), Gap current (GI), Spark gap (SG), etc. and physical properties of electrode, work piece and dielectric fluid (Kiyak & Cakir, 2007). Optimal machining conditions are achieved by a detailed analysis off all the factors affecting the process and also the interaction between them. Design of experiments (DOE) methods has been used quite effectively in industrial applications to optimize manufacturing processes (Varun et al., 2012). The photograph of EDM setup is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Photograph of EDM setup

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