Parametric Study and Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Micro-Turning Process of Different Grade of Alumina Ceramics Based on Taguchi Methodology

Parametric Study and Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Micro-Turning Process of Different Grade of Alumina Ceramics Based on Taguchi Methodology

G. Kibria (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aliah University, Kolkata, India), B. Doloi (Department of Production Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India) and B. Bhattacharyya (Department of Production Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India)
DOI: 10.4018/ijseims.2014010102
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Abstract

The present paper addresses an investigation on the effect of process parameters during Nd:YAG laser micro-turning operation of different grade of alumina (Al2O3) ceramic materials. Considering different levels of various process parameters i.e. laser beam average power, pulse frequency, workpiece rotational speed and Y feed rate, Taguchi method based experimental design has been used to construct the set of experiments. The same set of experiments has been utilized to machine 10 mm diameter cylindrical workpiece made of different grades of Alumina ceramics i.e. K60 and K80. Surface roughness (Ra) and micro-turning depth deviation were considered as the process characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed for each grade of alumina ceramic to find out the significant process parameters during laser micro-turning process. The optimum process parameters settings for individual responses were obtained by analyzing the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Mathematical models, which correlate the response and process variables, have been developed for all the grades of ceramics. Multi-objective optimization i.e. simultaneous minimization of surface roughness (Ra) and micro-turning depth deviation has been done through combined approach of Taguchi methodology and Grey Relational Analysis.
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1. Introduction

To fulfill the ever increasing demands of miniaturized features in the manufactured components or parts, a number of material processing methods have been developed and are being applied to manufacture complex shaped and high accurate products in micro domain. Amongst these methods, laser material processing methods are promising and effective tools that can efficiently be applied to process a wide range of materials ranging from metals, ceramics, composites, glass, quartz and many more (Steen, 2010). Laser materials processing is given high importance when conventional thermo-chemo-mechanical processes are ineffective in processing a particular material. Lasers processing offers several distinguished advantages which include one-step direct and locally confined machining, no induced mechanical stresses on machined surface, green and clean technology, elimination of secondary operations, less material wastage as chips and less cycle time (Islam & Campbell, 1993; Roessler, 1989). Among the various types of lasers available, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers and excimer lasers provide unique features during processing of difficult-to-cut materials, especially ceramics and composites (Quintero et al., 2001). The working principle of laser beam machining (LBM) is that a high intense laser beam is irradiated on the workpiece surface, due to which the irradiated zone gets extreme high temperature upto the material’s melting and vaporization temperature (Dubey & Yadava, 2008). The molten material is removed by high pressurized flow of gases (air or neutral) creating small size of crater on the machining surface. The development of laser material processing has been started three decades ago including intensive research activities in the area of drilling, cutting, grooving, marking and surface modifications (Steen, 1989; Wilson & Hawkes, 1987). However, to create micro-dimensional features on difficult-to-machine materials, in-depth researches have been started 15 years back (Masuzawa & Toenshoff, 1997; Ehmann, 2005; Dornfeld et al., 2006). Recently, laser micro-machining processes have been given much attention to manufacture miniaturized components for integrating these micro-parts in various applications in biomedical, electronics, automotive, chemical and aerospace areas (Pantelis & Psyllaki, 1996; Forget et al., 1989).

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