Pasikola: A Co-Creation Process in Urban Transportation Innovation of Makassar City, Indonesia

Pasikola: A Co-Creation Process in Urban Transportation Innovation of Makassar City, Indonesia

Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra (Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia) and Wim G.M. van der Knaap (Wageningen University, The Netherlands)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/IJEPR.2020070102

Abstract

In this digital era, innovation becomes an important element within urban planning and management to support a more effective and efficient urban service. Until now, most of the local governments in Indonesia still rely on a fully top-down approach to solve urban transportation problems. This article investigates the co-creation process in solving an urban transportation problem in Makassar City, Indonesia, by analyzing key success factors of the process. A literature review and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from key actors involved in the process. It revealed that there are five important factors contributing to the success of a co-creation process, namely back up from the mayor, diversity of stakeholder involvement, local NGO facilitation, international NGO facilitation, and a committed team. A combination of the top-down approach and co-creation, as a participatory approach, and utilization of digital means seems to offer an opportunity for a more effective and impactful urban solution implementation in a contemporary (Indonesian) city.
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1. Introduction

In 2018, 55% of the world total population lived in an urban area and this number will increase to 68% in 2050 (United Nations, 2018). This phenomenon is occurring not only in developed countries but also in developing countries, like Indonesia. Negative impacts emerge as a result of this urbanization process, such as crime, urban heat island impact, pollution, slum area development, increasing waste generation, worsening water quality and water quantity, growing unemployment, and traffic congestion (Pawan, 2016; Uttara, Bhuvandas, & Aggarwal, 2012). Most of these impacts are related to the urban environment which directly affects people living there.

Focusing on traffic congestion in Indonesia, the driving force behind it is the increasing number of private vehicles and poor or even lack of public transportation provision or its maintenance (Leung, 2016). One of the cities which face this problem is Makassar City in Indonesia. Makassar is a metropolitan city consisting of 1,48 million people in 2017 with a total area of 175,7 km2 (Central Bureau of Statistics of Makassar Municipality, 2018) (see Figure 1). Similar to other cities in Indonesia, most people prefer to use a private vehicle rather than public transportation; this turns out to be one of the reasons for traffic congestion in the city (Pulse Lab, 2016). According to the Central Bureau of Statistics of South Sulawesi Province (2016), there were about 1 million motorcycles and 190 thousand cars in Makassar City but unfortunately without any improvement of road services. There are two types of public transportation in Makassar, the formal category owned by the government (bus rapid transit) and the informal category owned by private/individual persons (pete-pete or public minibus, bentor or motorized pedicab, and mobile app-based transportation service, like GoJek and Grab). Pulse Lab (2016) revealed that public transportation in Makassar is not effectively used by the people because public transportation is considered to be not reliable, not comfortable, and not safe enough, so people prefer to use their own vehicle. All of the implemented solutions to cope with the Makassar City transportation problem were mostly adopted via a top-down approach, evident from the Mayor’s program on “Smart Pete-Pete” and “Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Mamminasata”, by a spatial and mid-term development plan arranged by the Planning and Development Agency, and by a local transportation system plan called “Tatralok” arranged by the Transportation Agency.

Figure 1.

Administration map of Makassar City (Source: Makassar Municipality, 2014)

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