Preventing Collaborative Black Hole Attack in IoT  Construction Using a CBHA–AODV Routing Protocol

Preventing Collaborative Black Hole Attack in IoT Construction Using a CBHA–AODV Routing Protocol

T. Aditya Sai Srinivas (VIT University, India) and S S Mani Manivannan (VIT University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/IJGHPC.2020040102
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Workers or labors who are working in construction sites are prone to severe risks such as death, injuries happened due to accidents, falls and stuck in between objects. Internet of things (IoT) based sensors can be utilized to monitor the behavior of workers when they are in danger zones/areas. To safeguard site workers, supervisors or site managers should monitor and alert them when they are in danger. Data will be routed from site worker to supervisor, during this routing process data is subjected to routing attacks such as black hole attack and so on, due to wireless transmission. This article addresses the problem of black hole attack that happens during the wireless transmission between nodes and the base station (BS) of IoT-based civil construction. The proposed solution Collaborative Black Hole Attack – Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing protocol (CBHA-AODV) prevents the collaborative black hole attack by 87.72%.
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A worker working at construction site faces many challenging and risky tasks every day. According to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) the potential hazards which workers face daily are: falls, motion injuries, getting stuck in between heavy objects, failing to use proper protective equipment, electric shock, arc flash or arc blast, trench collapse, scaffold collapse, working under high temperatures, sudden change in environmental conditions and so on. More than 7681 site workers were dead in between 1992 to 2010 because of vehicle accidents and heavy equipment on site (Kanan, Elhassan, & Bensalem, 2018; Hinze & Teizer, 2011) (Figure 1). Accidents can happen to anyone working on a site such as laborer, operating engineer, foreman, drivers, plumber, electrician and so on. Among these 101 operating engineers and 205 site laborers are dead at a construction site from 2008 to 2010 (Figure 2). Nearly 7 million workers are working at various sites. Due to these hazards workers may feel tired and can lose their focus on their surroundings. This leads to accidents and causes severe injuries and at times it may even cost a person’s life. A man’s life is more important than any other thing in the world because their family members are dependent on him. In order to protect workers from these hazards, IoT technology enabled wearable’s can be used such as: smart helmets/ hats, smart gloves, safety vests and work boots. These wearable’s are embedded with many sensors such as: environmental sensors, voltage detectors, biometric, GPS, motion, posture and slips so on. Environmental sensors will measure the temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity and so on. Biometric sensors will measure the body temperature, heart rate and other vital signals. These sensors generate massive amount of data to the nodes, then gets forwarded to the cluster head, from there it reaches to access points and finally to the Base Station (BS).

Figure 1.

Deaths recorded from 1992 – 2010

Figure 2.

Number of deaths according to occupation during 2008 - 2010


During this process where data moves from, nodes to access points to base station, routing attacks can take place. These attacks can also be considered as Denial of Service attacks (DoS) (Gope, Lee, & Quek, 2016). Figure 3 represent the system model for IoT based construction.

This model includes: Sensors (S): {S1, S2, S3, Sn},

Nodes (N): {N1, N2, N3,…, Nn}, - nodes encrypt data using Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Service (ECIES – 128).

Cluster Head (CH) – Two types of cluster head selection will be done. Primary cluster head will be elected based on the node which is having highest battery power and secondary cluster head which is having next high level battery power. Cluster head aggregates the data from all the nodes and forwards it to nearest access point. Cluster Head changes for every iteration.

Access points (AP): {AP1, AP 2, …, AP n} – Access points transmit data to Base Station (BS).

Base station (BS): Destination node is considered as Base Station (BS).

Figure 3.

System model


While considering the data routing in IoT based construction, a secure routing protocol is required to protect against routing attacks. The advantages of using IoT enabled wearable’s in construction worker’s safety are:

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