Radiation Aware Efficient Sensor Deployment and Optimal Routing in Dynamic Three-Dimensional WBAN Topology

Radiation Aware Efficient Sensor Deployment and Optimal Routing in Dynamic Three-Dimensional WBAN Topology

Hassine Moungla (University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France), Nora Touati (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, Paris, France) and Ahmed Mehaoua (University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/ijehmc.2014100105
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Abstract

This work further investigates paradigm of radiation awareness three-dimentionnel models for WBAN network environments. The authors incorporate the effect of dynamic topology as well as the time domain and environment aspects. Even, if the impact of radiation to human health remains largely unexplored and controversial. They ask two fundamental issues, (a) deployment and (b) information routing taking into account radiation awarness. The authors first propose a multi objectives flow model which allows describing a new optimal deployment model for WBAN sensor devices with dynamic topology and the relevant possible trade-offs between coverage, connectivity, network life time while maintaining at low levels the radiation cumulated by wireless transmissions. They propose oblivious deployment heuristics that are radiation aware. The authors then combine them with dynamic spectrum management is proposed based multi-commodity flow model which allows to prevent sensor node saturation and take best action against reliability and the path loss, by imposing an equilibrium use of sensors during the routing process in order to “spread” radiation in a spatio-temporal way. Experimental results show that the proposed models and algorithms balances the energy consumption of nodes effectively, maximize the network lifetime . It will meet the enhanced WBANs requirements, including better delivery ratio, less reliable routing overhead. Their proposed radiation aware deployment and routing heuristics succeed to keep radiation levels low.
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We ask two fundamental issues, (a) deployment and (b) information routing taking into account radiation awarness.

The impact of radiation attracted the attention of several researchers from different research fields. We mention an interesting book (Allan, 2010) which concentrates on reliability and the effects of radiation. The reliability can be considered either end-to-end or on a per link base. Examples of reliability include the guaranteed delivery of data (i.e. packet delivery ratio), in-order-delivery etc. Moreover, messages should be delivered in reasonable time. The reliability of the network directly affects the quality of patient monitoring and in a worst case scenario it can be fatal when a life threatening event has gone undetected . The propagation of the waves takes place in or on a (very) lossy medium, the human body. As a result, the waves are attenuated considerably before they reach the receiver. The devices are located on the human body that can be in motion. WBAN should therefore be robust against frequent changes in the network topology. The radiation aspect still largely unexplored in the context of WBANs. We point out that known adaptive power control methods in cognitive networks (such as using radio optimizations and smart antennas), do not focus on the aspect of radiation impact.

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