Robots in Medicine: Past, Present and Future

Robots in Medicine: Past, Present and Future

Hruday Kasina (GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, India), M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni (GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, India) and Rahul Botcha (GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMMME.2017100104
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Robots are wide across used in several industrial applications. Robot applications are more found in medical industry in recent days. In initial days, robots were mostly used for simple surgeries and medical applications such as laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive surgery in 1980's. At that time robotic surgeries were performed with the presence of surgeons in operation theatre. The present day technology has been so much advanced with more enhanced capabilities to perform several complicated tasks such as remote surgery and micro robotic surgery. The current paper discuss about the history and evolution of robots in medical industry and their latest technological advances, applications in various fields in medicine and limitations of robots in medical industry along with its future scope.
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2. Classification Of Robots In Medical Industry

Robots used in medicine are classified into five types according to their actuation and applications (Smith-Guerin et al., 2008). Figure 1 shows tree of robot for each category represents the classification of robots and an example.

Figure 1.

Classification of robots in medicine


2.1. Passive Robots

These are the robots actuated by human operator (Smith-Guerin et al., 2008). The information about the position of the tool relative to the pre-planned data is displayed to the surgeon. The execution of the surgical action is completely performed by the surgeon (Mosges et al., 1989; Lavallee et al., 1994). Dynamic walking robot and AESOP endoscopic positioner are examples for passive robots (Smith-Guerin et al., 2008; Collins et al., 2001).

Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning (AESOP) represented in Figure 2 is a voice controlled robot which is used to position an endoscope (Stoianovici, 2000). It was developed by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Computer Motion Inc. in 1989 and received FDA clearance in 1994 (Hockstein et al., 2007; Unger et al., 1994). It consists of motorized joints where the surgeon controls it with foot and hand (Kavoussi et al., 1994). It also consists of Hermes Voice-activation to control it with few simple voice commands (Ballantyne, 2002). It does not perform any invasive manipulation rather it is used only for endoscopy purpose (Camarillo et al., 2004).

Figure 2.

AESOP endoscopic positioner (Source: Computer Motion Inc.)


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