Security Against Network Layer Attacks for Hierarchal Mesh Environments

Security Against Network Layer Attacks for Hierarchal Mesh Environments

Geetanjali Rathee, Hemraj Saini
DOI: 10.4018/IJITWE.2018040105
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This article aims to secure a routing mechanism by completing amendments in previously proposed efficient secure routing (ESR) protocols against networking layer attacks in mesh networking environments. Along with generating the tickets to prove the authenticity of communicating clients, each node proves the legitimacy of its succeeding node by computing the behaviour. The intermediate nodes selected for routing the data packets proves the legitimacy of each other by getting the passive acknowledgement process within a predefined time to live (TTL) time. Further, grey hole and black hole attacks are considered in the network simulation environment as they drastically affect the network metrics during the communication because of their severe attacking characteristics. The proposed mechanism is validated over conventional routing mechanisms against packet loss and network delay parameters in the presence of black hole and grey hole routing attacks.
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1. Introduction

The networking cost is continuing to decline and has become a fundamental requisite in day to day communication. In today’s era, Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is measured as a vitreous candidate to bargain the direct communication among the nodes during disasters and energy renewals. Client, infrastructure and hybrid are 3 types of WMN architecture consisting of two kinds of nodes; 1) Mesh Clients (MC) and 2) Mesh Routers (MR). MR’s are generally static and act as a backhaul backbone by setting up the communication among the nodes while MC’s are the end users that access the network services through MR’s and can be acted as static or dynamic in nature (Khan & Pathan, 2013; Akyildiz & Wang, 2005). Advancement in networking technologies has allowed for institutions to exploit the network not only for resources sharing but also for storing huge pool of data for further communications. Hence, for securing such resources of institutions on a network is a big concern (Rathee & Saini, 2016). Due to persistent designing of WMN, it is important to intend new protocols that may proficiently precise the routes among various number of nodes. Further, because of its wireless broadcast channel, it is feasible that the routers divert from their basic protocol functioning and exploit malevolent activities in the network (Khan et al., 2012; Shams & Rizaner, 2017; Chen et al., 2016). Upon victorious, an intruder can intrigue the network traffic and humiliate the data processes of other nodes. Emergency and rescue operations are the research scheme mesh applications where liberate fighters categorize an ad-hoc occurrence network through sinked units. The types of attacks on routing protocols can be categorized as worm hole, grey hole, black hole and sybil attacks (Su, 2011; Tseng et al., 2011; Rathee & Saini, 2016; Akilarasu & Shalinie, 2016) which may be dynamic or inactive in nature. Among them, grey hole and black hole attacks are taken as two severe routing attacks of the network as they drastically affect the network performance to zero or slightly poison the network environment by selectively sinking the ongoing packets. Further, the grey hole attack is difficult to identify as the malicious nodes selectively sinked some ongoing packets in order to reduce the metrics of the network while black hole attack is easier to detect as it plunged all the ongoing packets coming towards it. Therefore, there is a need to propose a routing mechanism which ensures the trust among communicating entities during packet transmission process between source and destination nodes (Patel & Shah, 2016; Bao et al., 2012; Lu et al, 2016).

A routing mechanism phenomenon is proposed in previous work know as Efficient Secure Routing (ESR) (Rathee & Saini, 2016) protocol for reducing the computational cost of routing messages. The proposed mechanism validates the secure routing in mesh environments by using the three main entities such as 1) Pr key generator to engender the private keys to MC’s during communication 2) Authentication Server (AS) used to assign the tickets between MC’s and MR’s and 3) MC’s are the entities who wishes to communicate with each other. Although the proposed phenomenon reduces the communication cost for routing messages to ensure the security however due to trusted assumptions of communication nodes where all the nodes are assumed to trusted and forward the data packets on their trust value, there may be a chance of involving number of routing attacks by simply behaving as the malicious nature of routing nodes. Therefore, there is a need to establish a routing mechanism which provides the trusted routing path along with reduced computational cost of communicated messages.

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