Standalone Photovoltaic System with Maximum Power Point Tracking: Modeling and Simulation

Standalone Photovoltaic System with Maximum Power Point Tracking: Modeling and Simulation

Hanane Yatimi (Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco) and Elhassan Aroudam (Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/IJSDA.2018070105

Abstract

In this article, on the basis of studying the mathematical model of a PV system, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique with variable weather conditions is proposed. The main objective is to make a full utilization of the output power of a PV solar cell operating at the maximum power point (MPP). To achieve this goal, the incremental conductance (IC) MPPT technique is applied to an off-grid PV system under varying climatic conditions, in particular, solar irradiance and temperature that are locally measured in Northern Morocco. The output power behavior and the performance of the system using this technique have been analyzed through computer simulations to illustrate the validity of the designed method under the effect of real working conditions.
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1. Introduction

In the world of today, the continuous provide of electric power plays an important role in reaching economic and social rapid development in countries (Arezou et al., 2017), which causes energy and environment crisis. This requires the reduction of the dependence on traditional energy and the improvement of the level of the development and the utilization of the renewable energy sources gradually. The Renewable energy has an advance all over the world in the environment protection, thanks to the features of non-polluting and large reserve etc. (Yatimi & Aroudam, 2016a), in particular photovoltaic solar energy. PV systems have been widely utilized in various applications, such as battery charging, water pumping (Hamrouni et al., 2009), home power supply etc., to convert the solar energy to electrical energy through the semiconductor devices called photovoltaic cells based on photovoltaic effect (Yatimi & Aroudam, 2015). The PV system is a non-linear system, and like many other systems requires a continuous control to work performantly. In this context, many control systems are designed in the literature (Lazaros et al., 2017) in order to operate under strict specifications, to satisfy certain aims, like safety regulations in the industry, optimal production of PV panels, level control in chemical processes and many more. On the other hand, the output characteristic of PV module is nonlinear and changes with temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, its maximum power point is not constant. Under each condition PV cell has a point at which it can produce its MPP. Hence, the use of MPPT techniques to uphold the PV module operating at its MPP and then to increase the PV system efficiency is crucial.

Box 1. Important abbreviations
Abbreviations
PV photovoltaic
I PV module output current
V PV module output voltage
Ns number of cells connected in series
Np number of cells connected in parallel
T cell temperature
I0 reverse saturation current
a ideality factor
Eg Band gap energy of the semiconductor Used in the cell
Iph photo current
ISCR cell short circuit current at reference temperature and solar irradiance
Rs series resistance
Rp parallel resistance
q charge of an electron
K boltzman’s constant
MPPT maximum power point tracking
P&O perturb and observe
IC incremental conductance

In recent years, a variety of techniques have been proposed for tracking the MPP of PV systems. MPPT (see meaning in Box 1) techniques are varying between them in many aspects, including simplicity, convergence speed, hardware implementation, sensors required and cost. For example, the Perturb and Observe (P&O) method (Prabaharan & Palanisamy, 2016), which is the most widely used algorithm due to the simplicity of structure and the ease of implementation, but has limitations, it can work well when the solar irradiance and the temperature do not vary quickly with time and the output power is oscillating around the MPP. The Incremental Conductance (IC) method (Rania et al., 2017; Kashif et al. 2014), which has better performance than the P&O method. The main advantage of IC method is that it can offer good performance under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions in addition to its ability to achieve lower oscillation around MPP.

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