Supply Chain Efficacy in Relief Delivery

Supply Chain Efficacy in Relief Delivery

Neeta Baporikar (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia & University of Pune, Pune, India) and Frans Atshipara (Procurement Officer, Department of Economic Development and Community Services, Windhoek, Namibia)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/IJAL.2019070101

Abstract

Supply chain efficacy in disaster relief operations is crucial as disaster in any form brings grief and suffering. It also leads to colossal losses for those effected. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the challenges faced by the supply chain during the handling of disaster relief operations, namely drought. Adopting mixed research method involving both qualitative and quantitative, the focus is on performance of the supply chain in an organisation and residents of one of the most affected constituencies as a case study. Findings reflect that inadequate financial resources, restrictions on transport and difficulties associated with planning for the initial relief requirements of a distressed community are the main challenges for supply chain effectiveness in distribution the relief material. The strategies proposed, and recommendation made could be useful in improved supply chain for the effective handling of drought relief distribution and putting systems in place to the area of study and could help to align procedures for disaster response and aid in relief strategies.
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Introduction

Disaster management in the country involves the government, the military, humanitarian organisations and the community members in order to handle effectively the distribution of relief materials to the victims (Sweet, 1998). During disaster situations, the actors have little encouragement of working together for an extensive period as the aid agencies unexpectedly face pressure to use their resources to capacity in assisting and mitigating the disruptions and the widespread losses affecting the victims (Wilhelm, 2012). Namibia is affected regularly by natural disasters, one of the most common being drought. Drought has been particularly harmful to the economy of the affected communities particularly in regions of Caprivi, Hardap, Kavango, Oshana, Omusati in Namibia (Wilhelm, 2012). There has been huge destruction both in agriculture and business due to drought. Further, the floods and drought together have also produced structural damage including loss of life and livelihoods. This has definitely affected long-term development (Ministry of Education, 2015). Therefore, to mitigate the demand during disasters, it becomes crucial that government and other humanitarian agencies like Namibia Red Cross Society, supplement the efforts of regional and local government (Sebbah, Boukhtouta & Ghanmi, 2012).

Droughts are recurrence and occur mostly in alternate years as many of the regions receive less than 300 mm annual rainfall (Namibian Metrological Services, 2016). Major drought distressing large part of the country occurred in 1930s. Another most shattering drought Namibia has witnessed lasted for ten long year’s from1960-1971 (Namibian Disaster Management Plan, 2015). Drought disasters occurred between 1982 and 1984 because of poor rainfall during those 3 consecutive years and again followed by another drought between 1992 and 1993 still due to rain deficiency (Sweet, 1998). Disasters in general have over the years resulted in 24,000 deaths, displaced more than 608 million people and caused damages amounting to $27 billion worldwide annually (Hoyois et al., 2007). Okatana Constituency the main area for the study has been receiving drought relief since the last outbreak. There have also been various reports in Namibian dailies of issues with drought relief (Staff Reporter, 2016; Kahiurika, 2016). These also became the focus of discussions at various conferences, seminars and other events on drought relief distribution (Haufiku, 2013). There is no supply chain management (SCM) technique or model existing which can be engaged to deliver aid and relief to disaster affected populations in Namibia. Over the years, Namibia is affected by devastating drought due to rain deficiency (See Table 1).

Table 1.
Occurrence and effect of droughts in Namibia (1982-2015)
YearOccurrenceAffectedTotal affectedTotal damage
19821
1991125000025000050000
19951163200163200
1998125000250001000
20011
20021345000345000
2013133100033100064000
20151580000580000

Source: EM-DAT database

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