Surgeon Assistive Augmented Reality Model with the use of Endoscopic Camera for Line of Vision Calculation

Surgeon Assistive Augmented Reality Model with the use of Endoscopic Camera for Line of Vision Calculation

Anastasia Daskalaki (Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Division of Information Transmission Systems and Material Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece), Kostas Giokas (Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Division of Information Transmission Systems and Material Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece) and Dimitris Koutsouris (Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Division of Information Transmission Systems and Material Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/ijrqeh.2012100103
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Abstract

In this paper, the authors describe a surgeon assistive Augmented Reality (AR) model for endoscopic procedures. They analyze the main parts of the model and the processes that need to be established such as, the registration of the patient, the segmentation of medical data, their 3D reconstruction, and the detection of endoscopic instruments and the camera. The authors present two graphical user interfaces, build to serve the needs of segmentation, navigation, and visualization of the final intra-operative scene. By using preoperative data of the patient (MRI-CT) and image processing techniques, the authors can provide a unique view of the surgical scene. The potentials and the advantages of endoscopic-robotic surgeries nowadays can be improved. Augmented surgery scenes with information about the patients underline structures, enables wider situation awareness, precision, and confidence.
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Augmented Reality

Augmented reality (AR) is considered an extension of Virtual reality field. In 1994, Milgram and Kishino (1994) described the “Reality-Virtuality Continuum” in which AR is a part of a general category named Mixed reality. The main deference between AR and Virtual reality is in the background of the scene. Virtual reality acts in a virtual environment in contrast with AR which acts in a real environment. AR is a live view of a real-world environment that a human being can realize through his senses, whose elements are augmented by virtual information produced by computer-generated systems (Azuma, 1997; Bimber & Raskar, 2005; Valino, 1998; Starner et al., 1997). In order to construct a space where real and virtual world coexist, AR has to follow three basic properties (Azuma et al., 2001):

  • 1.

    Harmonic synthesis between real and virtual elements, into a real environment.

  • 2.

    Interactive in real-time environment.

  • 3.

    Registration between real and virtual elements.

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