Sustainable Management Models for Mangrove Forests Through Institutional Strengthening and the Development of Productive Business

Sustainable Management Models for Mangrove Forests Through Institutional Strengthening and the Development of Productive Business

Pudji Purwanti (Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia), Edi Susilo (Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia) and Erlinda Indrayani (Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSESD.2020100106
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Abstract

The huge potential of the mangrove forest in Gulf of Prigi, Indonesia, is being threatened by the unsustainable management of four institutions, each of which have their own vision of the forest. Thus, this study aims to strengthen the sustainable management of mangrove forests through institutional reinforcement, analyzes the development of productive business as economic incentives, and finds sustainable management models for the mangrove forest. This study employs a focus group discussion and intensive negotiation. The data was analyzed by using GeSCA in order to determine products to develop under the value feasibility criteria of NPV, IRR, Net B/C, and Pay Back Periode. The result of the study shows that intensive negotiation is effective to change the perspective of sustainable management. It is then reinforced by the economic reinforcement approach through the development of productive mangrove-based businesses. The result also shows that there are several products worthy of development from mangrove fruits, brownies, crackers, dodol, palm sugar, and coconut milk.
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1. Introduction

Mangrove forests provide subsistent nutrition for basic life. It also provides commercial products that can be used as a source of income for local communities. Damage to mangrove forests will result in the loss of income and will lead to social conflict (Paul, 2006). Mangrove forests are a shared resource where everyone can take advantage of. The nature of joint ownership in mangrove forest management is what causes the emergence of complex issues in the management of mangrove forest resources. The utilization of mangrove forests that gives negative impact tends to cause damage to mangrove forest ecosystem. This is demonstrated by several studies, including Hue and Scott (2008) who stated that the use of mangrove forest land for the rapidly growing shrimp farming in central Vietnam causing environmental damage and degradation, as well as high water pollution. Damage to mangrove forests causes shrimp farmers who had invested in high capital to have more debt than poor cultivators who had sold their ponds. The research findings of Truonga and Dob (2018) recommended that a mangrove forest conversion policy in the Mekong River delta of South Vietnam of 40% for shrimp farming activities should be enforced. It was based on the weak policy on mangrove management contracts with households. The result of analysis showed that shrimp culture production would reach optimum if coverage of mangrove area was 60%. The finding about serious exploitation of mangrove forests was also presented by Eleanya et al. (2015) on the Akassa Island of Nigeria. It was stated that mangrove forests had been used as a source of livelihood for households. Therefore, there should be awareness activities on sustainable forest management. Meanwhile, the findings of Feka (2015) in mangrove forest management in West Africa had referred to several international conventions as well as laws that supported the management of mangrove forests. However, in practice, there were still a high amount of mangrove timber cutting for household purposes. The same thing happened at the research site, Prigi Gulf of Trenggalek area, where the existence of mangrove forest could only be found at Damas Beach and Cengkrong Beach. The decrease of mangrove forest area in Prigi Gulf occurred in the period of 1998 until 2008. Mangrove forest rehabilitation efforts in Prigi Gulf had been started since 2003. However, the conversion of mangrove forest into coconut plantation in Damas Beach was still running (Purwanti et al., 2018).

According to Rahman and Asmawi (2016), the lack of local community awareness efforts in Kuala Selangor on the biological and economic values of mangrove forests resulted in a weak participation of the community in mangrove forest management. Therefore, environmental education is very important to improve understanding and awareness of the community about mangrove ecosystems. Furthermore, Romanach et al. (2018) stated that efforts to restore mangrove forest which functioned as a buffer for marine and coastal life should be accompanied by commitment from many parties, namely the protection of government through the policies and the involvement of the proactive community in managing mangrove forests. According to Abdullah et al. (2014), rehabilitation and management of mangrove forests in Malaysia could be done through the community-based conservatian (CBC) approach. He further explained that the implementation of the CBC approach was an adaptive management that involved local communities, community institutions and NGOs.

Rehabilitation and management of mangrove forests has shown to be successful in several regions in Indonesia. In Kerawang of West Java, Indonesia, the conservation of mangrove forest was implemented through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program of PT Pertamina Hulu Energy Offshore of North West Java. Collaboration of private institutions, local government and community empowerment were crucial factors in successful mangrove conservation in Kerawang (Randy et al., 2015). Successful management of mangrove forest in Ambon Dalam Gulf happened because the community was able to adapt and modify the environment as a form of cultural capital (Salampessy et al., 2015).

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