The Effects 0f 4C-ID Model Approach on Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge About Electric Circuits

The Effects 0f 4C-ID Model Approach on Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge About Electric Circuits

Mário Melo (Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal) and Guilhermina Lobato Miranda (Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/IJWLTT.2018010107
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This paper reports the first results of an experimental research, carried out in a private school with 9th grade students, where the 4C/ID-model was used for teaching and learning electric circuits. The authors describe the principles and features of the instructional model, that is suitability for the teaching and learning of complex knowledge and skills and yet their permeability to develop digital educational resources and learning environments. The authors analyse the preliminary experimental results in terms of students' performance (both reproduction and learning transfer), mental effort and instructional efficiency. They also suggest clues to future research.
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The 4C/Id-Model Backgound

As refers Anderson (1983), a model is an application of a theory to a particular phenomenon. A theory is a precise deductive system, more general than a model. Often theories are grouped into frameworks and a framework is a general set of concepts for understanding a domain, but is not sufficiently organized to constitute a theory; from the same framework we can deduct various predictive theories.

The 4C/ID-model was developed based on some general principles of Instructional Design & Technology (ID&T or ID) (Reiser, 2001), where we emphasize the influence of the ADDIE model and the work of Robert Gagné (Gágne, 1975, 1984, 1985) and more recent theories, as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, developed by Richard Mayer and collaborators (Mayer, Heiser & Lonn, 2001; Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive load theory, established by John Sweller and colleagues (Sweller, van Merriënboer & Paas, 1988; Chandler & Sweller, 1991; Sweller, Ayres & Kayuga, 2011). All these theories can be integrated into the information processing framework, where memory (associated to other cognitive processes) is the basis and the result of the cognitive activity that occurs during learning. All these theories and models can be included in the cognitive framework. There are others two frameworks: the behaviourist and the constructivist frameworks, each of which has given rise to theories and instructional models (Reiser, 2001; Wilson & Cole, 2001).

As emphasize Wilson, Jonassen, and Cole (1993), ID as a discipline rests on the twin foundations of (1) a systems design model for managing the instructional development process (like de ADDIE model) and (2) theories that specify what high-quality instruction should look like (Reigeluth, 1983, 1987).

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