The Impacts of Reactive Aggression and Friendship Quality on Cyberbullying Behaviour: An Advancement of Cyclic Process Model

The Impacts of Reactive Aggression and Friendship Quality on Cyberbullying Behaviour: An Advancement of Cyclic Process Model

Kwek Choon Ling (Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Chow Poh Ling (Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Wang Zhimin (University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand), Kho Kok Hung (Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) and Law Hong Leong (Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/IJCBPL.2017040105
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

With the advancement of communication tools, the incident of cyberbullying has become a social issue (Edwina, 2014). Anouk et al. (2014) have developed a Cyclic Process Model with the aims to examine the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying behavior pertaining to the process how victims become cyberbullies. It examines the interplay between peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and cyberbullying behaviour among the adolescents (Anouk et al., 2014). However, this model does not provide sufficient understanding to what extent the reactive aggression and friendship quality affect the transformation of cyberbullying behaviour from the stage of peer victimization. In addition, there are relatively few investigators who have examined the impacts of reactive aggression and friendship quality to cyberbullying behaviour. The purpose of this research would like to investigate the relationships among the peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to social media content, reactive aggression, friendship quality and cyberbullying behaviour. A quantitative research was conducted among the addressed within the age group of 18 to 22 years old that have experienced certain extent of cyberbullying. A total of 520 questionnaires were distributed via judgmental sampling technique. The finding of this research concluded that peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and reactive aggression are the key determinants of cyberbullying behavior. Two mediation effects were discovered in which exposure to antisocial media content mediates the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior as well as reactive aggression mediates the relationship between peer victimization and cyberbullying behavior. However, the study did not support the role of friendship quality in moderating the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior.
Article Preview

Introduction

In the 21st century, technology has changed the ways how the adolescents communicate with each other. According to Kowalski et al. (2008), majority of the adolescents view electronic communication tools as essential for their social interactions. With the advancement of technology, some adolescents conveyed their messages through electronic media to harm someone or others and this phenomenon is known as “cyberbullying” (Wang et al., 2012). The incident of cyberbullying has become a social issue because the misunderstanding of the underlying causes of cyberbullying behaviour may lead to the wrong development of prevention method to cope with the cyberbullying problem (Ikuko Aoyama et al., 2011). Furthermore, many college students have committed suicide because they get cyberbullied from other people and it causes individuals feel uncomfortable in the school environment (Edwina, 2014).

Cyberbullying behaviour is defined as an aggressive behaviour that having three characteristics, including repetitive, imbalance of power and intended to harm the targeted individual (Bauman, 2010). Victims of cyberbullying will reflect the feelings of sadness, unhappy, anxiety, worry, fear, and moody which may affect their lifestyle (Beran & Li, 2005). Based on the research done by Edwina (2014), the bullying behaviour normally occurs at the middle, and high school and even in the higher education in which it may lead individuals feel uncomfortable when studying in the school environment.

Anouk et al. (2014) have developed a Cyclic Process Model with the aims to examine the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying behaviour pertaining to the process how victims become cyberbullies. The Cyclic Process Model examines the interplay between peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and cyberbullying behaviour among the adolescents (Anouk et al., 2014). Anouk et al. (2014) argue that peer victimization has direct impact on both anger/frustration and cyberbullying behaviour among the adolescent victims. The anger/frustration felt by the adolescent victims can directly affect the cyberbullying behaviour and indirectly affect the cyberbullying behaviour via the exposure to the antisocial media content. However, this model does not provide sufficient understanding to what extent the reactive aggression and friendship quality affect the transformation of cyberbullying behaviour from the stage of peer victimization. In addition, there are relatively few investigators who have examined the impacts of reactive aggression and friendship quality to cyberbullying behaviour. Danielle et al. (2012) argue that the face-to-face bullying was related to reactive aggression and at the end led to cyberbullying behaviour. Victims may pursue reactive aggression if they interpret the intentions of a person like to exert aggression through gossip and rumour spreading of another as being hurtful and therefore they fall in anger and retaliate as they reacting to the perceived threat from another (Danielle et al., 2011). The study on the relationship between reactive aggression and cyberbullying behaviour is becoming more critical as the adolescents are using the internet as their tools for demonstrating aggression toward others (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2010; Li, 2007; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004). The study from Danielle et al. (2011) concludes that peer victimization is related to the reactive aggression and subsequently leads to the cyberbullying behaviour. The adolescents spend a lot of time with their friends or peers and the quality of close friendship has significant influence on their emotional well-being (Flanagan et al., 2008). The anger/frustration felt by the victim adolescents during peer victimization will be released when there have someone listens and cares for them (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Skinner, 2002; Naylor et al., 2001). Therefore, friendship quality in certain extent will moderate the relationship between the anger/frustration and cyberbullying behaviour. In due respect, the purpose of this research would like to investigate the relationships among the peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to social media content, reactive aggression, friendship quality and cyberbullying behaviour. The main research question in this research is “what are the factors that determining cyberbullying behaviour?”

Complete Article List

Search this Journal:
Reset
Open Access Articles: Forthcoming
Volume 7: 4 Issues (2017): 2 Released, 2 Forthcoming
Volume 6: 4 Issues (2016)
Volume 5: 4 Issues (2015)
Volume 4: 4 Issues (2014)
Volume 3: 4 Issues (2013)
Volume 2: 4 Issues (2012)
Volume 1: 4 Issues (2011)
View Complete Journal Contents Listing