To Spur Social Sustainability in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: A Literature Review

To Spur Social Sustainability in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: A Literature Review

Adeel Shah, Musawir Ali Soomro, Urooj Nazir, Arham Khan
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 35
DOI: 10.4018/IJCEWM.309987
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With the world progressing rapidly, the supply chain of various industries globally, especially the pharmaceutical sector, has evolved rapidly. Unlike many developing countries, the global supply chains have been revolutionized using various digital technologies. However, in Pakistan, the pharmaceutical sector to be specific, although growing exponentially, still fails to provide maximum efficiency in their supply chain including minimal traceability and visibility from the company's end. This study illustrates the current scenario of the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan analyzing the gaps and potential areas for opportunities and improvements. The systematic review of literature and meta-analysis aims to provide a basis to understand the current challenges faced by the companies and help formulate a framework to provide a basis for the implementation of the most suited digital technology such as block chain or QR code to encounter and minimize the counterfeit of drugs, increase traceability and streamlining the processes and entities involved in the supply chain.
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1. Introduction

1.1. Introduction to the Industry

The sustainability and growth of a company are some indicators that help identify the performance of a company (Yorke et al. 2019). The pharmaceutical industry worldwide is an important part of the healthcare sector (Urias 2017) earning revenue in billions each year (Bravo and De Carvalho 2015). Pakistan at the initial stages did not have any pharmaceutical manufacturing industries. Since then, the sector keeps on struggling and growing (Sholy et al. 2018). With time and progress it has managed to improve significantly yet still it has its barriers and challenges (Chemiati 2020). The industry fulfills about 70% of the country’s demand for finished medicines (Anon 2021b) making annual sales of 3.1 billion USD

This industry is involved in the production of healthcare products and drugs of high quality at relatively affordable prices that are within the reach of average Pakistani citizens. Not only that, but the industry has also started to participate in the global markets (Khalique, Md. Isa, and Shaari 2012).

1.2. Performance of National Companies

Pakistan’s pharmaceutical industry is composed of nationals and multinational companies. The national companies have shown significant growth in recent years. Now, the majority of the companies are following GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices). As of today, the industry has the potential to develop a range of products from simple drugs to high-tech value-added compounds (Ahmed 2015).

Getz Pharma, a national pharmaceutical manufacturing company has produced a tablet called moxifloxacin in 2018 which was considered as the first-ever WHO prequalified product from Pakistan. Pakistani manufactured medicines and other health-related drugs are exported mainly to Jordan (about 80%) and other countries in the Middle East and Africa (Rasheed et al. 2019).

1.3. Value of Industry

As per a report on the potential of the pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan (Check and Future 2021), the value of the pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan rose to about $3.2 billion that is approximately twice of $1.64 billion in 2011. (Check and Future 2021)

According to (Anon 2021a), Pakistan’s total exports of pharmaceutical products have increased from $150 million in 2011 to $235.75 in 2020.

The experts have claimed that the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan has the potential to uplift its exports to $500 million to $1 billion in about 3 to 5 years. Similarly, due to new development in the public healthcare system, the value of the pharmaceutical industry could rise to about $5 billion by 2024 to 2025. (Check and Future 2021)

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