Toward a Theory Development on the Synergetic Entrepreneurship in the Hotel Industry: An Exploratory Study of the Albergo Diffuso in Italy

Toward a Theory Development on the Synergetic Entrepreneurship in the Hotel Industry: An Exploratory Study of the Albergo Diffuso in Italy

DOI: 10.4018/IJSECSR.2020070107
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The study uses the innovative model of Albergo Diffuso, or 'Dispersed Hotel', to substantiate the theory development of the organic synergetic entrepreneurship in hospitality. In this context, it involves the interrelationship between hotel management; restoration of ancient, inhabitable, and abandoned architectures; upcycling sustainability; and the synergetic interplay of all stakeholders. Currently, the number of abandoned structural architectures in Italy is about seven million. This initiative is beneficial to entrepreneurs engaging in upcycling abandoned structures to revive them and create jobs while adding value to the local economy. Identifying the development of concept will serve as the building block to create a synergetic framework for future research and for practitioners in the field.
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1. Introduction

Hyperactivities by entrepreneurs are seen in all industries on a global scale, especially in the tourism and hospitality industry, with a concentration on lodging and food and beverage operations (Fu et al. 2019). The digital evolution allows access to information for inspired entrepreneurs with creative ideas and compels existing ones to duplicate their efforts in innovation, radical innovation and new inventions. Modern entrepreneurs are associated with the concept of start-up, which gained popularity around the early 1990s with the boom of the dotcom. As a result, cities' administrations across the globe are engaged in supporting entrepreneurs to stimulate inventions and innovation created by talented entrepreneurs who contribute to the local, national, and global economy.

Hospitality literature shows evidence of decades in hyperactive global entrepreneurial engagement (Berger & Bronson, 1981; Ferguson et al., 1987; Jogaratnam & Tse, 2004; Altinary & Altinary, 2004; Li et al. 2009). Current activities, however, are more specific and targeted and are driven by disruptors (Airbnb, 2020), by innovators (SHA, 2020), and by game-changers (O'Connor, 2018). Nevertheless, there is also evidence that sedentary leadership and lack of entrepreneurial mindset will lead to business failure for many reasons, including lack of innovation (Lee, 1987; Parsa et al., 2005; Camillo et al., 2008.) Hence, entrepreneurial activities remain crucial, and inventions and innovation will lead to business success (Ricca, 2020; HVMG 2020.) Indeed, while some entrepreneurs successfully develop new and viable ideas, others fail. This failure is due to several possible influential factors: personality traits, experience, lack of business education, undercapitalization, and often pure misfortune (Antoncic et al., 2015; Åstebro, Scott & Gordon, 2007; Åstebro, Herz, & Weber, 2014; Atkinson, 1957). Notably, the restaurant sector is the most vulnerable within the hospitality industry (Lee, 1987; Parsa et al., 2005; Camillo et al., 2008) while the lodging sector is less vulnerable. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship continues to evolve in all industries as a start-up at the individual level and corporate level in the form of intrapreneurship (Pinchot and Pinchot, 1978) at the corporate level (O'Connor, 2018; Airbnb, 2020; Ricca, 2020; HVMG 2020.)

Regardless of the industry or subsector, entrepreneurs from any demographics have their unique traits, approaches, and are naturally prone to becoming entrepreneurs (Marcati, Guido, & Peluso, 2008; Liang, Wang, & Lazear, 2014).

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