University 4.0 in Developing Countries: A Case of Indonesia

University 4.0 in Developing Countries: A Case of Indonesia

Richardus Eko Indrajit (Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia), Basuki Wibawa (Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia) and Atwi Suparman (Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 27
DOI: 10.4018/IJSKD.2021070103
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Abstract

The barriers to adopting new emerging technologies are the parts of the transformation process of the university which are willing to change to the future environment which is triggered by the Industrial Revolution 4.0. This research aims to identify whether and how Emerging Technologies 4.0 can be established in universities of developing countries. Besides the literature review method, the research was conducted in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. The samples were 250 universities. The findings of this research may help higher education and top-management-level universities and the ministry of education to initiate future strategies: first, finding the mechanism to solve the financial problem (the highest obstacles) faced by the university, such as public-private partnerships, foreign investment, joint ventures, or other industrial relationships; second, working closely with technology and infrastructure providers (the third-highest obstacles) by implementing the technical approach such as cloud computing, on-demand technology, sharing resources, and virtualization.
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Introduction

In achieving organizational performance and business goals, numerous companies adopted the emerging technologies (ET) and industry 4.0 strategy (Ghobakhloo, 2018; Lins and Oliveira, 2020; Raj et al., 2019; Veile et al., 2019; Xu et al., 2018). The Industry 4.0 is a name given to the current technology automation trend in almost every single sector in the digital era which includes cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, big data, machine learning, radio-frequency identification (RFID), robotics, artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality, and the internet of things (IoT), and other internet-based (Lee et al., 2015; Lins & Oliveira, 2020; Mourtzis et al., 2018; Xia et al., 2018; Xia & Xi, 2019). The technology tools present both new opportunities and challenges for profit and non-profit organizations (Al Omari et al., 2019; B. Chen et al., 2017; McLeod, 2019; Zhou et al., 2016). In shortly, due to the rapid growth of IT emerging and business process digitalization, the profit and non-profit organizations are facing the new industrial-technology revolution.

Like the industrial revolutions and emerging technologies, new educational platforms will have to be developed to meet changing demands in learning environment as well (Ellahi et al., 2019; Shahroom & Hussin, 2018; Sharma, 2019). The transformation in the teaching system and higher education in the Industry 4.0 is also known as Higher Education 4.0 (called as an Education or Edu 4.0). Education 4.0 is defined as the adopting ET in the teaching and learning environments where teaching systems now being transformed (Antonelli et al., 2019). For instance, teaching should pay attention to the emerging technologies such as using massive open online courses (MOOC), online learning systems, using the device that can support teaching and learning, and development of lecturer and staff skills (Abbasy & Quesada, 2017; Sivathanu & Pillai, 2019). Due to these reason, the higher education institution should begin to set its learning strategy to follow the digital transformation of education.

Besides the benefits of emerging technologies tools, however, most researchers agree that the investigation of barriers related to ET implementation remains largely unexplored in the extant literature and merits further study (Kamble et al., 2018) especially in the education sector (Cassidy et al., 2014; Shahroom & Hussin, 2018). The learning environment will resort to industry professionals and online-based learning schema for the delivery of learning by 2025 (Shuck, 2016). An in-depth prediction, the researcher suggests that as the tendency of education systems will be online environments and will require a quality enhancement in physical learning sceneries. The changing views and strategies required in the institution demand change to the teaching system. However, not all higher education able to implement these learning technologies tools due to the limitation of resources and capabilities.

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