Using Simulations and Computational Analyses to Study a Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Radar

Using Simulations and Computational Analyses to Study a Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Radar

Jamiiru Luttamaguzi (Princess Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Akbar Eslami (Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, USA), Dwayne M. Brooks (Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, USA), Ehsan Sheybani (University of South Florida, Sarasota, FL, USA), Giti Javidi (University of South Florida, Sarasota, FL, USA) and Philip M. Gabriel (General Analytics, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada)
DOI: 10.4018/IJITN.2017010104
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Abstract

This paper describes a method for simulating Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar. The developments presented target classroom lectures and can form the basis of student projects. Computational analysis and simulation are critical elements of science and engineering education in which students need to acquire these competencies. FMCW radar system simulations are an example of a real-world application, invested in rich mathematical/physical content that exercise these competencies. Unlike conventional radars that operate in the time domain, FMCW radars operate in the frequency domain. Spectral and phase analyses are required to infer range and the range resolved velocity of meteorological targets such as rain or drizzle. Hence to proceed with simulations, students are first introduced to signals processing topics such as discretization and sampling of signals, Fourier Transforms, Z-transforms, and filters. Computations and the display of results are subsequently performed using Elanix System Vue and Matlab software. To aid the interpretation of the results, a brief description of FMCW physical principles of operation is provided. The computational technique is general and efficient, allowing the range-resolved radial velocity component of precipitation to be computed in real-time. Simulations of range are in excellent agreement with field test measurements of experimental, operational X-band radar currently being evaluated at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center while computations of the range-resolved velocity component of precipitation agree with the setup conditions of the simulations.
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Methodology

All FMCW systems use the same basic concept, and the three types (three different modulation schemes) only differ in the signal processing performed on the FFT. The process is shown graphically in Figure 1 and the system model is as follows:

Figure 1.

FMCW radar

  • 1.

    Calculate transmitted signal.

  • 2.

    Calculate received signal.

  • 3.

    Mix signals (multiply in time domain).

  • 4.

    Two sinusoidal terms are derived; filter out one.

  • 5.

    Perform FFT on filtered signal to calculate range and velocity.

  • 6.

    Improved spectrum output with windowing, zero padding.

  • 7.

    Possibly perform additional post-processing.

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