Well-Being, Motives and Experiences in Live and Online Game Settings: Case of Contract Bridge

Well-Being, Motives and Experiences in Live and Online Game Settings: Case of Contract Bridge

Tihana Brkljačić (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, Croatia), Lana Lučić (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, Croatia) and Ines Sučić (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, Croatia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJGCMS.2017100102


Traditional mind sports are extremely suitable for online environment, so various specialized platforms, were developed for this purpose. Although online games are technically superior and popular, many players argue that online play lacks “the game spirit”. The aim of this article was to compare motives and experiences of live and online games of Bridge. The authors conducted ten semi-structured online interviews with bridge players. All participants confirmed that Bridge significantly improved their quality of life. The participants reported benefits in accordance with Major (2001) serious leisure benefits and partially in accordance with the DRAMMA model of five factors related to leisure activities (Newman, Tay and Diener, 2014). Results showed that online bridge was generally perceived as less challenging and demanding, but appropriate for training purposes. The most important difference in motivation is related to boredom – frequent motive of online bridge, while not existent in live settings.
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Feeling the cards in your hand and looking the opponents in the eye is part of the magic. - Bridge player


Well-Being, Motivation, Leisure Activities, And Play

SWB is an individual’s overall state of subjective wellness, and it is commonly conceptualized as having two primary components– affective and cognitive (Diener 1984; Eid & Larsen, 2008). According to Diener’s tripartite model of SWB (Diener, 1984), life satisfaction is an overall judgment of life, and positive and negative feelings refer to affective experiences.

A broad definition of motivation divides it into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic. Recently, Reiss (2004) argued that the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is invalid, and that extrinsic motivations do not exist. Intrinsic motivations describe activities that follow one’s inner interests, and which are performed spontaneously and naturally (Deci, 1975). Those who report higher levels of intrinsic motivation and freedom experience greater levels of life enjoyment and psychological well-being (Graef, Csikszentmihalyi, & McManama Gianinno, 1983; Deci & Ryan 1987; Rodin, Timko, & Harris 1985; Wallston, Wallston, Smith, & Dobbins 1987), and leisure is a key life domain and a core ingredient for overall well-being (Newman, Tay, & Diener, 2014). Perhaps the most innovative of these theoretical models is Reiss’s (2004) multi-faceted model of intrinsic motivation, which is composed of 16 basic and universal motivations (see Table 1).

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