Women Entrepreneurship in Namibia: Challenges and Prospects

Women Entrepreneurship in Namibia: Challenges and Prospects

Efigenia Madalena Mario Semente (Namibia Business School, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia & Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia)
DOI: 10.4018/IJAMSE.2019070101
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This study explored the use of the marketing mix and the service profit chain frameworks by woman entrepreneurs in Namibia and evaluated the factors responsible for encouraging women to become entrepreneurs. The study further explored the nature of challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs in Namibia. The data was analysed through SPSS. The study revealed a new trend of young educated women entrepreneurs in Namibia that earn a very basic but steady income that allows them to be self-sufficient and independent. The study further revealed that the lack of entrepreneurial, financial, and marketing skills and the lack of adequate government support were among the major challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs in Namibia. Despite these challenges, the study concluded that the women entrepreneurs in Namibia have a positive entrepreneurial outlook which contributes to their entrepreneurial resilience and growth prospects.
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The following are the research objectives of this study:

  • To explore the use of the marketing mix framework by women entrepreneurs in Namibia;

  • To evaluate the factors responsible for encouraging Namibian women to become entrepreneurs;

  • To investigate the Service Profit Chain of woman entrepreneurs in Namibia;

  • To explore the relationship between the uses of the Marketing Mix Framework and women entrepreneurial success (Service Profit Chain) in Namibia;

  • To critically examine the problems faced by women entrepreneurs in Namibia.


Literature Review


“Entrepreneurship is a personal journey that begins in the mind of an individual” (Allen, 2016, p.27). This is because, according to Allen (2016) business is fundamentally about people, their hopes and dreams, how they interact, make decisions, plan, deal with conflict and much more. Hence, Entrepreneurs are known as catalysts of change and development that play a pivotal role in the economic progress and growth of the country (Nair, 2016). Although there is a considerable amount of literature about “Entrepreneurship”, there is a lack of consensus on what it is supposed to mean (Kobia and Sakalie, 2010, Nair, 2016). According to Huq et al., (2016) “Entrepreneurship” can be conceptualised as a process in which there is individual innovativeness and risk-taking propensity in strategic decision-making. It is also defined as the practice of creating value through distinctive resource blending that makes use of opportunity (Morris et al., (2001). It is further defined as the process of conceptualising, organising, launching and through innovation, nurturing a business opportunity into a potentially high growth venture in a complex, unstable environment (Rwigema & Venter, 2004)

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