Next Generation Mobile Networks and Ubiquitous Computing

Next Generation Mobile Networks and Ubiquitous Computing

Samuel Pierre (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada )
Indexed In: SCOPUS
Release Date: August, 2010|Copyright: © 2011 |Pages: 334
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-250-3
ISBN13: 9781605662503|ISBN10: 160566250X|EISBN13: 9781605662510|ISBN13 Softcover: 9781616923471
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Description & Coverage

The world is becoming more dependent on wireless and mobile services, but the ability of wireless network infrastructures and service-enabling technologies to handle the growing demand is questionable. As wireless and mobile services grow, the need increases for new technological solutions.

Next Generation Mobile Networks and Ubiquitous Computing provides a comprehensive and unified view of the latest and most innovative research findings for university professors, researchers, students, and industry professionals alike. Presenting chapters by experts from across the globe, this reference offers a single body of knowledge to show the many existing interactions between mobile networking, wireless communications, and ubiquitous computing.


The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Ambient networks
  • Context-aware computing
  • Mobile telecommunication networks
  • Multimedia transmission over wireless networks
  • Network Intrusion Detection
  • Real-time communication
  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Web service composition
  • Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
  • Wireless Sensor Networks
Table of Contents
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Mobile communication networks are made possible by the convergence of several different technologies, specifically computer networking protocols, wireless/mobile communication systems, distributed computing and Internet. The need for mobility is a fundamental market factor that is driving the evolution of telecommunications networks. In telecommunications terms, mobility can be defined as the ability to access all of the services that one would normally have in a fixed wireline environment such as a home or office, from anywhere. The goal is to make services such as access to web, corporate Intranet or databases, electronic mails and teleconferencing universal, accessible from anywhere, at anytime. To support this universal service availability effectively, the networks and end-systems require flexible and efficient service-enabling platform. These networks should include the functions of accessing and sharing various types of resources, and provide generic support for service creation, service delivery and service management.

The opportunities emerging from these technologies have given rise to new paradigms such as mobile computing and ubiquitous networking. However, promising these technologies seem to be, there are still numerous challenges to solve such as reliability and quality of service, infrastructure costs, and energy efficiency of mobile devices, among others. The most exciting promises of mobile computing and ubiquitous networking stay an entire new class of applications and potential new massive markets combining personal computing and consumer electronics.

Mobile computing is distinguished from classical, fixed-connection computing by: (1) the mobility of nomadic users and their terminals; and (2) mobile resource constraints such as limited wireless bandwidth and limited battery life. The mobility of nomadic users implies that the users might connect from different access points through wireless links and might want to stay connected while roaming, despite possible intermittent disconnections. Wireless links are relatively unreliable and currently are two to three orders of magnitude slower than wireline networks. Moreover, mobile hosts powered by batteries suffer from limited battery life constraints. These limitations and constraints leave much work to be done before mobile computing is fully operational. This remains true despite recent advances in wireless data communication networks and hand-held device technologies.

The world is becoming more dependent on wireless and mobile services, but the ability of wireless network infrastructures and service-enabling technologies to handle the growing demand is questionable. As wireless and mobile services grow, weaknesses become clearer. Failure to bring forth new solutions will not only affect current voice and data use but could also limit emerging wireless applications such as e-commerce and high-bandwidth Internet access.

The mission of this book is to present the latest and most innovative research findings on mobile networking to researchers from academia and industry. The overall objectives are:
• To present novel and innovative solutions in the mobile networking field;
• To serve as a basis for future research in the field.

Chapter 1, titled “Cooperation-Based Routing Protocol for mobile ad hoc networks”, describes a hybrid routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on the packet relaying cooperation and zone-based network architectures. Several solutions have been proposed to encourage the nodes to cooperate and to contribute to the common services of such networks. These solutions are grouped into two sets; detection and reputation techniques. This chapter discusses the limits of such solutions and presents a new routing protocol. Simulations results show the efficiency of the protocol opposite to the pro-active and reactive protocols in the context of cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks.

Chapter 2 introduces the Ambient Network (AN) which is a network integration solution that aims at fostering dynamic co-operation between the next generation, heterogeneous wireless and wired networks, in order to gather resources within and across networks to provide new services to end users. Applicable for fixed, wireless and mobile networks, the AN concept is based on a uniform and flexible control overlay, the Ambient Control Space (ACS), which capitalises on current Internet technology. The ACS will unify access to network services, regardless of the underlying network type. With this novel approach to control, routing and transport, all networking stakeholders can autonomously add such functionality within their networks.

Chapter 3, titled “Overview and Challenges of Multi-Interface and Multi-Channel Multi-Hop Wireless Networks”, presents an overview of multi-interface multi-channel wireless networks and some related challenges to deal with so as to fully take advantage of their potential. It analyzes some solutions proposed to deal with these challenges discusses some possible orientations based on the advantages and drawbacks observed in existing works. With multiple available channels, the network is split into smaller collision domains thereby reducing the probability of interference occurrence. A node equipped with multiple interfaces can transmit and receive data packets at the same time which avoids the throughput decrease when data have to be forwarded over multiple hops. So, the number of simultaneous transmissions is higher in this kind of networks than in classical ones, which favors the throughput improvement.

Chapter 4, titled “Cross Layer Design for Multimedia Transmission over Wireless Networks”, presents the challenges in design and implementation of cross layer adaptation schemes for multimedia transmission over wireless networks. It also presents the most important parameters and constrains that should be taken into consideration when attempting cross layer adaptation in wireless networks that involves different protocols in the overall protocol stack.

Chapter 5, titled “Charging in Mobile Telecommunication Networks”, describes the basic architecture and the major flows of a billing system in the telecommunication area, and discusses charging and billing systems in this area. It also presents the detailed algorithm and flow of offline (post-paid) and online (pre-paid) charging, shows the problems and issues generated by the new players in the service offering chain (3rd party providers and virtual network operators). Finally, it summarizes the problems of the legacy charging systems, and introduces a novel concept for price calculation, which could aid the Advance of Charge and Income Prediction functionalities.

Chapter 6, titled “Local Algorithms for Topology Control in Ad Hoc Networks”, presents a survey of recent techniques for local topology control in location aware Unit Disk Graphs. This survey includes recent local algorithms for Routing, Traversal, Planar Spanners, Dominating and Connected Dominating Sets, and Vertex and Edge Coloring. It also investigates trade-offs for the previously mentioned issues and several remaining open problems which will play important role in the future development of the subject, like solutions for three dimensional ad hoc networks, study of power assignments in the physical interference model and the inclusion of realistic models of mobility.

Chapter 7, titled “The Four Facets of Multimedia Streaming”, provides a snapshot of the facets involved in delivering multimedia streaming contents to the end user’s terminal. The facets discussed in the chapter extend from the streaming paradigms, media coding techniques, the network support for multimedia streaming services to the techniques used to evaluate the user’s quality of experience for multimedia streaming applications. Each facet is also discussed for both fixed and mobile environments. The chapter concludes with some considerations on the evolution of streaming techniques by identifying potential areas of research that focus on three themes: ubiquitous streaming, peer-to-peer streaming, and streaming based on quality of experience management.

Chapter 8, titled “Real-Time communications in Wireless Sensor Networks”, presents the state-of-the-art of real-time communication in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It also discusses the different communication protocols proposed in the literatures, together with their respective advantages and drawbacks, by focusing on MAC and routing key layers in real-time communication. As most existing protocols are not suitable under realistic constraints where sensor nodes and wireless links are unreliable, the chapter ends with some insights about future trends in designing real-time protocols.

Chapter 9, titled “A Survey of IP Layer Mobility Management Protocols in Next Generation Wireless Networks”, provides a survey of IP layer mobility management protocols in next generation wireless networks. More precisely, it elaborates on the mobility support in IPv6 (MIPv6), hierarchical mobile IPv6 mobility management (HMIPv6), fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6), fast handover for hierarchical mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) and proxy mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6). Finally, it describes future trends about mobility management.

Chapter 10, “Auditory Feedback for Network Intrusion Detection”, describes literature research on the benefits and challenges of Auditory Display applied to wireless, wired, and mobile network intrusion detection. It also highlights further work on Auditory Display and multimodal interfaces to support intrusion detection in wireless mesh networks.

Chapter 11, titled “Peer-to-Peer over Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, reviews various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. After looking at each technology independently, considering their commonalities and differences, it surveys existing literature on the topic of P2P over MANETs, then discusses the state-of-the-art that leads to the identification of the key areas requiring further research.

Chapter 12, “Middleware Technologies for Ubiquitous Computing », proposes a classification for some of the most employed ubiquitous middleware. This classification is established upon the challenges raised by ubiquitous computing – effective use of smart spaces, invisibility, and localized scalability. It raises the following question: how the various ubiquitous middleware respond to these challenges in terms of interoperability, discoverability, location transparency, adaptability, context awareness, scalability, security, and autonomous management? This classification shows that if many middleware are mature enough and offer specific functionalities respecting the properties of ubiquity, a real lack is noticed in having an interoperable, autonomous and scalable middleware for the execution of ubiquitous applications.

Chapter 13, titled “Routing in Asymmetric Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks”, presents an overview of routing protocols that explicitly consider asymmetric links in route construction and route discovery phases in wireless ad-hoc networks. Such networks are found in numerous situations including sensor networks, mobile ad-hoc networks, or networked embedded control systems. The chapter introduces robust mechanisms that bypass asymmetric links to ensure successful route establishment. Routing protocols that assume that all links are symmetric can fail in their route discovery when this assumption does not hold true. As a result, it is necessary that asymmetric links are considered in route establishment.

Chapter 14, titled “Smartphones to Access Hybrid Information Spaces”, focuses on utilizing mobile computing in hybrid information spaces for describing the usage of portable computing devices as a means of interaction with physical and digital spaces. It also provides background information on smartphones, on the challenges of mobile computing and on web-based architectures. Then, it discuss interaction issues with the device and describes their usage in hybrid spaces. Finally, it outlines the future trends and conclusions.

Chapter 15, “Location-dependent and Context-aware Computing”, presents an overview of systems with context-aware features. These systems are typically able to adapt their behavior to the changes of environment surrounding themselves and/or its users without any explicit intervention of the user.  The chapter introduces the concept of context and context-awareness, discusses possible architectures of context-aware and location-based systems, and provides examples of existing systems documented in the literature.

Chapter 16, titled “MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, gives an overview of medium access control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) including both scheduled and contention-based schemes. It focuses on scheduled and contention-based protocols that have been proposed by the research community during the last few years. Based on the classification into scheduled and contention-based protocols, the implementation of some classes showed that sophisticated protocols significantly increase the lifetime of a sensor node.

Chapter 17, “Mechanisms for Automatic Web Service Composition”, introduces the Web services composition as a means of studying efficient integration of the existing Web services to satisfy users’ requirements. It also discusses the Web services composition definition, combined with current Web services composition methods like Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based methods and Non-AI methods. The chapter ends with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of such methods.
Chapter 18, titled “A Robust Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, proposes a robust weighted clustering algorithm, called PMW (Power, Mobility, Workload), to form and maintain more stable clusters in MANETs. In PMW, the weight of a node is calculated by three parameters: remaining power, mobility prediction and workload. These three metrics are computed locally, independent of extra devices, and cover the major causes of re-clustering. Simulation results confirm that PMW prolongs lifetime of MANETs and has a lower cluster head change rate and re-affiliation rate than other existing algorithms.

Chapter 19, “Emerging Mobility Applications of Host Identity Protocol”, gives an overview of the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and discusses two different mobility management extensions built on it. It introduces the basic ideas and the main paradigms behind the HIP-scheme, and shows its wild range usability in next generation mobile and ubiquitous networks.
Chapter 20, titled “Service Discovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, presents the basic concepts of service discovery and their related issues. It also describes the service discovery challenges that arise due to the properties of mobile ad hoc networks. The chapter concludes by presenting some observations and discussing the current challenges to provide guidelines for possible improvements.

Chapter 21, “Cultural Technology and Communication”, presents the most important mobility prediction schemes for MANETs in the literature. It classifies them according to the specific prediction methods they employ and/or according to their applications well-known mobility prediction schemes.
Chapter 22, titled “Calling Police Using SMS”, proposes a method to contact the Police with mobile phones and via SMS (Short Message Service). In this method, when a person wants to contact the Police, he must only press a special key on his mobile phone for a short time to launch a special program. This program sends current location of the person using GPS system and sends it periodically with other useful information such as name, home and work address of that person automatically to the Police Station using SMS. This method is implemented using Java Platform Micro Edition programming language and tested on a Nokia N71 mobile phone by using an ‘Evermore BT-R700’ GPS receiver.

Chapter 23, titled “Vehicular Communications Networks: Current Trends and Challenges”, presents an overview of the Vehicular Communications Networks and explores the unique features and challenges that characterise these highly dynamic networks as well as their requirements with respect to applications, types of communication, self-organization and security. It discusses various forwarding and routing strategies focussing on position-based techniques including “anchor-based routing”.