Prototyping of Robotic Systems: Applications of Design and Implementation
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Prototyping of Robotic Systems: Applications of Design and Implementation

Tarek Sobh (University of Bridgeport, USA) and Xingguo Xiong (University of Bridgeport, USA)
Indexed In: Clarivate Analytics View 1 More Indices
Release Date: February, 2012|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 522
ISBN13: 9781466601765|ISBN10: 1466601760|EISBN13: 9781466601772|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0176-5


As a segment of the broader science of automation, robotics has achieved tremendous progress in recent decades due to the advances in supporting technologies such as computers, control systems, cameras and electronic vision, as well as micro and nanotechnology. Prototyping a design helps in determining system parameters, ranges, and in structuring an overall better system. Robotics is one of the industrial design fields in which prototyping is crucial for improved functionality.

Prototyping of Robotic Systems: Applications of Design and Implementation provides a framework for conceptual, theoretical, and applied research in robotic prototyping and its applications. Covering the prototyping of various robotic systems including the complicated industrial robots, the tiny and delicate nanorobots, medical robots for disease diagnosis and treatment, as well as the simple robots for educational purposes, this book is a useful tool for those in the field of robotics prototyping and as a general reference tool for those in related fields.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Medical robotics: Robotic Systems for Medical Applications
  • Methodology and Case Studies for Prototyping Robotic Systems
  • Modeling and Simulation of Discrete Event Robotic Systems
  • Optimal Design of Three-link Planar Manipulators Using Grashof's Criterion
  • Prototyping Autonomous Multi-robot Systems for Search, Rescue and Reconnaissance
  • Prototyping Bipedal Humanoid Robots
  • Prototyping Fully Autonomous Indoor Patrolling Mobile Robots
  • Prototyping Portable Haptic Arm Exoskeleton
  • Prototyping Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform for Personal Remote Sensing
  • Robotic Hardware and Software Integration for Changing Human Intentions

Reviews and Testimonials

This book is intended for researchers, industry engineers, and students working in the fields of robotics, control systems, medical electronics, computer vision, micro/nanotechnology, aerospace, and other automation fields. It is also a general reference book for individuals who are interested in robotic design, prototyping and their applications. The book is designed to cover the design and implementation of a wide range of robots for different applications. Each category is accompanied with case studies.

– Tarek Sobh, University of Bridgeport, USA; and Xingguo Xiong, University of Bridgeport, USA

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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The field of Robotics focuses on the study of design, simulation, implementation, and operation of robots for various applications. As programmable or remotely-controlled electromechanical machines, robots can perform certain tasks autonomously or semi-autonomously. Ever since the early eras of robotics, there has been a long history of utilizing robots to assist or replace human work. Nowadays, robotics technology has been intensively used in numerous industries including, but not limited to: manufacturing, automobile assembly, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, pharmaceuticals, health science, mining, planetary exploration, military weapons, et cetera. Robots can significantly improve the efficiency, reliability, accuracy and throughput of a traditional workforce. They are especially suitable to replace humans in performing tasks that are difficult, monotonous and tedious. They are also a good choice for delivering results in harsh environments that are too dangerous or life threatening for humans, such as workplaces with nuclear radiation, poisonous chemicals, fire, lack of oxygen or extremely high/low temperatures. Robotics, as a segment of the broader science of automation, has achieved tremendous progress in recent decades due to advances in related supporting technologies such as computing, control system, wireless communication, cameras and electronic sensing, as well as micro and nanotechnology. Many new robotic systems have been designed and implemented for various applications. For example, modern technologies in motion control, speech recognition, facial expression and human-robot interaction have led to bipedal humanoid robots that can walk, talk or even perform simple communication with human. As another example, robotic surgery utilizes computer-controlled robots to support a range of surgical procedures. Robotic surgery has enabled remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Compared to traditional surgery, robotic surgery has the advantages of high precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time.

Prototyping is the process of building an early sample or model of a system to prove the design concept or detect potential problems before batch fabrication. Prototyping is an important activity in engineering. Prototyping a design helps in determining system parameters, validating design concepts, debugging problems, and achieving optimized design of the system. The prototype can be used to verify design and measurements (e.g. performance, kinematics, function, architecture) and provide important information for the designer to identify which design option is better and which component may need further development and testing. Robotics is one of the industrial design fields in which prototyping is crucial for improved functionality. Prototype development is a good test for checking the viability of a proposed system. Prototyping of a robotic system is never trivial. Starting from the design specifications, a designer needs to decide the architecture of the robot best suitable for the specific application. Design optimization should be performed to decide the design parameters of the robot. During the implementation process, potential problems or challenges may be exposed. Some of the problems may be due to the design flaws and it may be necessary to further adjust or revise the design based on the information fed back from the prototyping process. Multiple iterations may be necessary before the robotic systems can be finally prototyped successfully. The prototyping of a robotic system involves many important decisions, such as deciding the architecture of the system, choosing proper materials and the electromechanical components, determining the design parameters and deciding the algorithmic control of the robot modules (kinematics, inverse kinematics, dynamics, trajectory planning, analog control, and digital computer control). The design for each individual module should be decided, such as the mechanical structure, power, actuation, control, telecommunication, and data-acquisition systems. Various CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) tools are available for the designers to design, visualize, and simulate a robotic system rapidly and cost-effectively. Computer simulation allows the discovery of potential problems before the robots are actually manufactured. 

The objective of this book is to cover the most recent research frontiers and trends in robotic prototyping. This book discusses the design and implementation of various robotic systems and their applications, from complicated industrial robots to state-of-the-art micro and nanorobots for surgical applications, as well as robotic systems for educational purposes. Robotic systems are diverse in their structures, working principles, implementation strategies and applications. Newly emerging technologies such as computer vision, wireless communication, micro and nanotechnologies have been utilized in robots to enhance their function and performance. As a result, new robots have been proposed and prototyped for various new applications. This book aims to cover the prototyping of various robotic systems including complicated industrial robots, tiny and delicate nanorobots, medical robots for disease diagnosis and treatment, as well as simple robots for educational purposes. The design, implementation, and technical considerations in the prototyping of various robotic systems are discussed. Some case studies of robotic prototyping for industrial, medical, aerospace, and education applications are included. The applications of such robotic systems will be introduced. The new trends and most recent research frontiers in robotic prototyping and the applications are also covered.

This book is intended for researchers, industry engineers, and students working in the fields of robotics, control systems, medical electronics, computer vision, micro/nanotechnology, aerospace and other automation fields. It is also a general reference book for individuals who are interested in robotic design, prototyping and their applications. The book is designed to cover the design and implementation of a wide range of robots for different applications. Each category is accompanied with case studies.

The content of this book is arranged as follows. The book begins with an introduction about general design methodologies and implementation strategies used in robotic prototyping. Several case studies are included to illustrate the concepts. Prior to prototyping, a robotic system should be designed following the required specifications, and the design parameters should be decided. Chapter 2-3 introduces the theoretical design and optimization strategies of general robotic systems. This includes the modeling and simulation of discrete event robotic systems using extended Petri Nets in Chapter 2, and the design optimization of three-link planar manipulators using Grashof’s Criterion in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 to Chapter 8 discuss the prototyping of various robotic systems for different applications, which include unmanned aerial vehicles, a portable haptic arm exoskeleton, a bipedal humanoid robot, an indoor fully autonomous patrolling mobile robot, as well as a lunabotic regolith excavator robot. The architecture, design considerations and implementation of each robot are discussed in detail. Chapters 9-12 are devoted to the topic of medical robotics. Chapter 9 provides a comprehensive overview of various medical robots being developed around the world, and future trends in this exciting field. Chapter 10 introduces the system development, assessment and clearance of surgical robotics. Chapter 11 proposes a piezoelectric driven ultrasonic cell injector that may be used as a powerful tool in medical research and disease treatment. Chapter 12 introduces two example projects about prototyping robotic systems for surgical procedures and automated manufacturing processes. Human-robot interaction (HRI) is another exciting field in robotics. It will eventually lead to robots that can directly interact with humans, which can assist people and improve human performance in daily and task-related activities. Chapter 13 discusses an interesting project addressing the use of robotics to change human intentions. Search and rescue (SAR) robots can help people to perform search and rescue tasks in environments that are unsafe or life-threatening for human rescuers, such as underwater, following an earthquake, or other natural disasters. The development of SAR robots must address challenges in robotic sensing, mobility, navigation, planning, integration and teleoperation control. Chapter 14 introduces a framework for prototyping autonomous multi-robot systems for search, rescue, and reconnaissance. Finally, robotic systems are also used for the automation of disassembly process of electronic products for recycling when they come to the end of life cycle. The disassembly process is generally very complex due to the large amount of components involved, and an optimization of the sequence is needed to improve efficiency and reduce cost. Chapter 15 proposes a heuristic approach for optimizing disassembly sequencing for robotic disassembly operations. The content of each chapter are briefly summarized below.

In Chapter 1, an overview of the general methodology for prototyping robotic systems is introduced, and some case studies are given to illustrate the whole sequence. Robotics research is the framework for studying hypotheses and conjectures, synthesizing new ideas, and discovering phenomena in the context of robotic systems. Prototypes are normally used for proof-of-principle and functional demonstration. In many cases they are part of the product design and development process. In direct relationship to successful demonstrations of new technology using prototypes and the existence or emergence of related markets, prototypes could end up being used or redesigned for commercialization. The market may even accept, albeit rarely, a demonstration prototype as the first generation product. Yet, such prototypes normally would be re-designed at a later stage as commercial prototypes. The process of prototyping is complex, costly, and risky. This chapter provides an experience-based framework of prototype development and commissioning. It introduces elements learned directly from the practice that encompass aspects of project management, technology development process, and commercialization in the context of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The contents of this chapter are based mainly on the author’s practical experience of leading an SME technology developer. The author is also a faculty member working as a researcher and teacher. Because of the interrelationship between research and technology development, his views and perception of the topic may be unique, and they are personal. The chapter presents a general framework for robotic systems prototyping. Three case studies are demonstrated in the chapter, which include a mobile tracker, a robot arm for internal operations in nuclear reactors, and a MRI-guided robot for prostate focal surgery. The case studies back up the points made in the chapter and help the reader understand the outlined concepts. 

The implementation of any robotic system should start from design optimization and simulation. Many different robotic systems may belong to the same category and follow similar theoretical modeling and simulation strategies. In Chapter 2, the modeling and simulation of discrete event robotic systems using extended Petri nets are introduced. This chapter deals with modeling, simulation, and implementation problems encountered in robotic manufacturing control systems. Extended Petri nets are adopted as a prototyping tool for expressing real-time control of robotic systems and a systematic method based on hierarchical Petri nets is described for their direct implementation. A coordination mechanism is introduced to coordinate the event activities of the distributed machine controllers through friability tests of shared global transitions. The proposed prototyping method allows a direct coding of the inter-task cooperation by robots and intelligent machines from the conceptual Petri net specification, so that it increases the traceability and the understanding of the control flow of a parallel application specified by a net model. This approach can be integrated with off-the-shelf real-time executives. Control software using multithreaded programming is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Design optimization is the key step to achieving a set of optimized design parameters for the robotic system. Chapter 3 introduces a novel and effective algorithm for optimal design of three-link planar manipulators, using Grashof's criterion. The design of robotic manipulators is dictated by a set of pre-determined task descriptions and performance parameters. These performance parameters are often defined in terms of workspace dexterity, manipulability, and accuracy. Many serial manipulator applications require that the manipulator have full dexterity about a work piece or a pre-defined trajectory, that is, to approach the given point within the workspace with all possible orientations about that point. Grashof's criterion defines the mobility of four-link closed chain mechanisms in relation to its link lengths. A simple assumption can convert a three-link serial manipulator into a four-link closed chain so that its mobility can be studied using Grashof's criterion. With the help of Grashof's criterion, a designer can not only predict and simulate the mobility of a manipulator during its design, but also map and identify the fully-dexterous regions within its workspace. Mapping of the dexterous workspace is helpful in efficient task placement and path planning. A simple algorithm using Grashof's criterion for determining the optimal link lengths of a three-link manipulator is proposed in order to achieve full dexterity at the desired regions of the workspace. The generated design is also tested by applying joint angle limitations.

Starting with Chapter 4, the design and prototyping of various robotic systems are introduced. In Chapter 4, a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle platform for personal remote sensing is proposed. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for civilian applications are in a rapidly growing sector in the global aerospace industry that has only recently begun to gain traction.  In this relatively immature field, there is such a steep learning curve that it can be difficult for research groups to begin development of well designed UAV systems.  In this chapter, the authors present the AggieVTOL, a modular multi-rotor rotorcraft UAV prototype platform, and an overview of the prototyping phase of its development, including design parameters and the implementation of its modular subsystems.  Performance results demonstrate the effectiveness of the platform. The design and implementation strategies in this project can be extended to other UAV prototyping as well. 

In Chapter 5, the prototyping of a portable haptic arm exoskeleton for aerospace application is proposed. The proposed robot is a seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflective device able to produce haptic rendering of the human arm, either as master for teleoperation of a slave robot, or in interaction with a virtual reality. The project was conducted on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA) as a prototype of the master device used for teleoperation of future anthropomorphic space robotic arms on the International Space Station (ISS). The motivation is to decrease the number of extravehicular activities of the astronauts, even for complex situations.  The structure of a portable anthropomorphic exoskeleton of seven degrees of freedom was selected by ESA due to the fact that it allows a more intuitive control of anthropomorphic slave arms, and it also allows multiple contact points, offering a larger workspace (comparable to the human arm).  Besides, being attached on the astronaut, the system involves only internal forces (it is self-equilibrated) and can be used in zero-gravity. 

Chapter 6 presents the authors’ work on prototyping and real-time implementation of bipedal humanoid robots. Dynamically equilibrated multimodal motion generation is required for the proposed bipedal humanoid robot. This chapter is aimed at describing a contemporary bipedal humanoid robot prototyping technology, accompanied with a mathematically rigorous method to generate real-time walking, jumping and running trajectories that can be applied to this type of robots. The main strategy in this method is to maintain the overall dynamic equilibrium and to prevent undesired rotational actions for the purpose of smooth maneuvering capabilities while the robot is in motion. In order to reach this goal, the Zero Moment Point criterion is utilized in spherical coordinates so that it is possible to fully exploit its properties with the help of Euler’s equations of motion. Such a strategy allows the designer to characterize the rotational inertia and therefore the associated angular momentum rate change terms, so that undesired torso angle fluctuations during walking and running are well suppressed. It allows the designer to prevent backwards-hopping actions during jumping as well. The proposed approach is validated by performing simulations using a precise 3D simulator and conducting experiments on an actual bipedal robot. Results indicate that the method is superior to classical methods in terms of suppressing undesired rotational actions, such as torso angle fluctuations and backwards-hopping. 

In Chapter 7, the prototyping of fully autonomous indoor patrolling mobile robots is proposed. The mobile robot employs a modular design strategy by using the ROS (Robot Operating System) software framework, which allows for an agile development and testing process. The primary modules - omni-directional drive system, localization, navigation, and autonomous charging are described in detail. Special effort is put into the design of these modules to make them reliable and robust in order to achieve autonomous patrolling without human intervention. The experimental test results prove that an indoor mobile robot patrolling autonomously in a typical office environment is realizable.

In Chapter 8, the prototyping of a lunar excavator robotic system is discussed. The lunabotic excavator was developed for participating in the 2010 NASA Lunar Excavating Competition. Being remotely controlled by an operator using a computer via Wi-Fi telecommunication, the autonomous lunabotic excavator can perform the tasks of excavating regolith stimulant, collecting it in the dumpster, and dumping it into the assigned collector box. The excavator include multiple modules including mechanical frames, front/rear wheels, excavating conveyor, steering system, dumping system, power supply and distribution system, actuation system, switch control system, data acquisition system and telecommunication system. The design and implementation of the lunabotic excavator with all the functional modules are discussed. The design concepts used in this project may offer hints leading to new and effective robotic excavators for planetary exploration. 

Robotics is also finding exciting applications in the biomedical field, leading to a new interdisciplinary field of medical robotics. Medical robotics will significantly impact the health care industry, resulting in revolutionary change to the way doctors diagnose and treat diseases. For example, robotics is already being used for minimally invasive surgery (MIS), remote surgery (telesurgery), patient monitoring and stabilization, rehabilitation facilities, as well as medical training. Minimally invasive surgery based on medical robots results in smaller incisions, shorter hospital stays, improved prognoses and reduced cost. Chapter 9 to Chapter 12 are specifically devoted to this important and exciting new field. In Chapter 9, a comprehensive overview about medical robotics is proposed. As an interdisciplinary field, medical robotics focuses on developing electromechanical devices for clinical applications. The goal of this field is to enable new medical techniques by providing new capabilities to the physician or by providing assistance during surgical procedures. Medical robotics is a relatively young field, as the first recorded medical application occurred in 1985 for a brain biopsy. However, medical robotics has tremendous potential for improving the precision and capabilities of physicians when performing surgical procedures and it is believed that the field will continue to grow as improved systems become available. This chapter begins with an introduction to robotics, followed by a historical review of their use in medicine. Clinical applications in several different medical specialties are discussed. Various medical robots, ranging from commercial products from industry, to the research works of university labs are introduced. The technology challenges and areas for future research in medical robotics are also discussed.

In Chapter 10, the system development, assessment, and clearance of surgical robots are introduced. Information Technology and robotics have been integrated into interventional medicine for over 25 years. Their primarily aim has always been to provide patient benefits through increased precision, safety and minimal invasiveness. Nevertheless, robotic devices should allow for sophisticated treatment methods that are not possible by other means. Several hundreds of different surgical robot prototypes have been developed, while only a handful passed clearance procedures and were released to the market. This is mostly due to the difficulties associated with medical device development and approval, especially in those cases when some form of manipulation and automation is involved. This chapter presents major aspects of surgical robotic prototyping and current trends through the analysis of various international projects. It spans across the phases from system planning, to development, validation and clearance.  

Research in medical robotics also leads to new and improved tools for medical research and disease treatment. In Chapter 11, the design and evaluation of a piezoelectric driven ultrasonic cell injector is proposed. Piezo drill, a new cell injection technology that utilizes piezo-driven pipettes with a very small mercury column for cell injection, was first invented in 1995. It was then successfully applied to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a variety of mammal species. Although this technique significantly improves the survival rates of the ICSI process, shortcomings such as the damage to the cell membrane due to large lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette, complexity of operation and toxicity of mercury immensely limit its application. In this chapter, a novel piezo-driven cell injection system for automatic batch injection of suspended cells is presented. It has a simplified operational procedure and better performance than previous piezo-driven cell injectors. Specifically, this new piezo-driven cell injector design has three advantages. First, by centralizing the piezo oscillation energy on the injector pipette, it eliminates the vibration amplitude of other parts of the micromanipulator. Second, a small piezo stack is sufficient to perform the cell injection process. Third, detrimental lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette are attenuated to a satisfactory amount even without mercury column. The elimination of mercury enables wide applications of the proposed cell injection technology in a number of cell manipulation scenarios. Ultrasonic vibration micro-dissection (UVM) theory is utilized to analyze the piezo-driven cell injection process, and lateral oscillation of injector pipettes is investigated. Experiments on cell injection of a large amount of zebrafish embryos indicate that the injector pipette is capable of piercing through cell membranes with low injection speed and almost no deformation of the cell wall, but with a high success rate. 

In Chapter 12, two example projects about the prototyping of robotic systems in surgical procedures and automated manufacturing processes are reported. The prototyping and implementation of the robotic system is a scientific and technological integration of robotic system design, development, testing and application. This chapter describes the recent development and applications of robotic systems to surgery procedures in biomedical engineering and automated manufacturing processes in industry. It includes design and development, computer-aided modeling and simulation, prototype analysis and testing of robotic systems in these two different applications.  

Human-robot interaction (HRI) is another new and increasingly popular field that studies the dynamics of interaction between humans and robots. Many researchers are putting effort into developing robotic systems that are capable of performing direct, safe and effective interactions with humans. It is also interesting to look into how robotics can be used to affect human behavior and intentions. As an interdisciplinary field, HRI requires knowledge about robotics, psychology, communication, ethics and cognitive science. Chapter 13 proposes interesting research about using robotic hardware and software integration to change human intentions. Estimating and reshaping human intentions are among the most significant topics of research in the field of human-robot interaction. This chapter provides an overview of intention estimation literature on human robot interaction and introduces an approach to how robots can voluntarily reshape estimated intentions. The reshaping of the human intention is achieved by robots moving in certain directions that have been determined a priori through observations from the interactions of humans with the objects in the scene. Being among the few studies on intention reshaping, the authors exploit spatial information by learning a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) of motion that is tailored for intelligent robotic interaction. The algorithmic design consists of two phases. First, an approach is used to detect and track a human to estimate his/her current intention. Later, this information is used by autonomous robots that interact with the detected human to change the estimated intention. In the tracking and intention estimation phase, postures and locations of the human are monitored by applying low-level video processing methods. In the latter phase, learned HMM models are used to reshape the estimated human intention. This two-phase system is tested on video frames taken from a real human-robot environment. The results obtained using the proposed approach show promising performance in reshaping the detected intentions.

Robots have been widely used in search and rescue tasks in environments that are dangerous or life-threatening to human rescue workers. During an earthquake, nuclear accident or other disaster, rescue robots can save many lives without endangering the human rescue workers. In Chapter 14, a framework for the prototyping of autonomous multi-robot systems for search, rescue and reconnaissance is proposed. Robots consistently help humans in dangerous and complex tasks by providing information about, and executing tasks in disaster areas that are highly unstructured, uncertain, possibly hostile, and sometimes not reachable by humans directly. Prototyping autonomous multi-robot systems in disaster scenarios both as hardware platforms and software can provide the foundational infrastructure for comparing the performance of different methodologies developed for search, rescue, monitoring and reconnaissance. In this chapter, the prototyping modules of heterogeneous multi-robot networks and their design characteristics are discussed. Two different scenarios are considered in the prototyping process. One is the search and rescue in unstructured complex environments. The other is the connectivity maintenance in Sycophant wireless sensor networks, which are static ecto-parasitic clandestine sensor networks mounted incognito on mobile agents, using only the agent’s mobility without intervention, and are cooperating with sparse mobile robot sensor networks.

Robots are also used for the disassembly of electronic products when they come to the end-of-life cycle. Electronic products enter the waste stream rapidly due to technological enhancements. Their parts and material recovery involve significant economic and environmental gain. To regain the value added to such products, a certain level of disassembly may be required. Disassembling electronic products is a tedious and potentially dangerous process, and robots are increasingly used for this operation. Due to large amount of components in electronic products, an efficient algorithm is needed to optimize the sequence in robotic disassembly operations. In Chapter 15, a heuristic approach for disassembly sequencing problem for robotic disassembly operations is proposed. Disassembly operations are often expensive and the complexity of determining the best disassembly sequence increases as the number of parts in a product grows. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methodologies for obtaining optimal or near optimal disassembly sequences to ensure efficient recovery process. To that end, this chapter introduces a Genetic Algorithm-based methodology to develop disassembly sequencing for end-of-life products. A numerical example is presented to provide and demonstrate better understating and functionality of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm is proven to be effective in optimizing the sequence of robotic disassembly operation and improving the efficiency of the process. 

Finally, this book is a joint effort of robotic researchers and engineers from around the world. The editors hope that this book will be helpful to researchers and engineers engaged in the design and prototyping of modern robotic systems, as well as students of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer engineering who are interested in the robotics field.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Tarek M. Sobh received the B.Sc. in Engineering degree with honors in Computer Science and Automatic Control from the Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt in 1988, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Computer and Information Science from the School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania in 1989 and 1991, respectively. He is currently the Vice President for Graduate Studies and Research, Dean of the School of Engineering and Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Bridgeport (UB), Connecticut; the Founding Director of the Interdisciplinary Robotics, Intelligent Sensing, and Control (RISC) laboratory; the Founder of the High-Tech Business Incubator at UB (CTech IncUBator), and a Professor of Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering.
Xingguo Xiong is an Associate Professor in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Bridgepeort, Connecticut, USA. He obtained his B.S. degree in Physics in Wuhan University, Wuhan, China in 1994. He obtained his first PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in 1999. He obtained his second PhD degree in Computer Engineering in University of Cincinnati, OH, USA in 2005. He joined University of Bridgeport as faculty since Fall 2005. Prof. Xiong’s research areas include Microelectromechanical System (MEMS), nanotechnology, as well as VLSI design and testing. He is also interested in robotic system design and prototyping, microrobots, and nanorobots. He has two patents, and published one book chapter and numerous conference/journal papers. He is the recipient of 2009 Northeast ASEE (American Society of Engineering Education) Outstanding Teacher Award.