2D and 3D Visual Attention for Computer Vision: Concepts, Measurement, and Modeling

2D and 3D Visual Attention for Computer Vision: Concepts, Measurement, and Modeling

Vincent Ricordel (University of Nantes, France), Junle Wang (University of Nantes, France), Matthieu Perreira Da Silva (IRCCyN – University of Nantes, France) and Patrick Le Callet (University of Nantes, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8723-3.ch001
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Visual attention is one of the most important mechanisms deployed in the human visual system (HVS) to reduce the amount of information that our brain needs to process. An increasing amount of efforts has been dedicated to the study of visual attention, and this chapter proposes to clarify the advances achieved in computational modeling of visual attention. First the concepts of visual attention, including the links between visual salience and visual importance, are detailed. The main characteristics of the HVS involved in the process of visual perception are also explained. Next we focus on eye-tracking, because of its role in the evaluation of the performance of the models. A complete state of the art in computational modeling of visual attention is then presented. The research works that extend some visual attention models to 3D by taking into account of the impact of depth perception are finally explained and compared.
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1. Visual Attention

It would be difficult to go directly into specific studies without a general introduction of some background knowledge on visual attention. So in this section, we first introduce concepts of visual attention as well as various mechanisms of attention. Secondly, we present a brief introduction of the HVS and of different types of eye movements as well as the technique for measuring eye movements, i.e. eye-tracking. Finally, we introduce some typical state-of-the-art computational models of visual attention.

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